Style 2012


13 Zamir K. Tarlanov (Petrozavodsk)
On the Role of Antithesis and ampfication Patterns in Leo Tolstoy’s Tule Haji Murat
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Article touches upon the antithesis/amplification patterns’ role in Leo Tolstoy’s Haji Murat, defining their structure motivated by nuclear word as well as discourse parameters potentialities. The author also traces the connection between speech stylistics and behaviour standards observed by the characters. It is also demonstrated that unlike the antithesis pattern the amplification in Tolstoy’s tale used for expressing the author’s point of view on the events portrayed. Besides, some discursive functions of amplification and its distribution in the text in question are being established as well.

23 Svitlana Ya. Yermolenko (Kiev)
Modern Ukrainian Linguostylistics: Correlation of Theories and Methods
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Terminological meaning of “linguostylistics”, opposed to the concept of “style” in the branch of literary criticism, is explained. Two branches of philological sciences use different methods to the general object of research – the artistic text. It depends on the theory of style, goals and tasks for the studying of style. Correlation instruments of analysis in theory of literature (creative themes and motives) with the concepts of linguostylistics (keywords, lexical-semantic, associative-and-image fields) is established. The choice of language units, which is due to social goal and the functioning of language as a definition of the style evaluated critically. Interpreting the style as a type of language thinking, which is determined by the sphere of social and personal activities of native speakers, is proposed.
The idea of inseparability of style and creation the text is postulated. The process of text creation occurs in the concrete style and represents the type of language thinking which is signifi cant for the particular branch of social activity.

33 Milosav Ž. Čarkić (Belgrade)
Metrical and rhytmical functions of rhyme

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We have studied the metrical and rhytmical functions of rhyme in the Serbian verse of various poetic genres, our research being mostly focused on two literary movements: Romanticism and Modernism, which were ruled by the strict principles of prosody, i.e. the respect of accepted metrical and tonal rules in the formation of verse structure.
We have conducted our study of the role of rhyme, as an element of the metrical structure of verse, on various types of metrical lines: the hexasyllable (3//3), the heptasyllable (4//3, 3//4, 5//2), the octosyllable (4//4, 3//5, 5//3), the enneasyllable (6//3), the decasyllable (4//6, 5//5), the hendecasyllable (5//6), the dodecasyllable (6//6) and the fourteeneer (7//7). We have observed the syllabic structure of rhyme as a factor of the syllabic structure of feet or a unit of stress on the clauses of the aforesaid lines. In terms of their syllabic values, the rhymes in question (as metrical units) include monosyllabic, disyllabic, trisyllabic, tetrasyllabic, pentasyllabic and hexasyllabic ones. The most frequent are disyllabic, trisyllabic and monosyllabic rhymes, whereas tetrasyllabic, pentasyllabic and hexasyllabic rhymes appear very rarely, mostly with a view to the dynamization of rhymed clauses, and they represent a moment of failed expectations. Contrary to the aforesaid, the disyllabic, trisyllabic and monosyllabic rhymes take an active part in the shaping of the syllabic and tonal structure of verse and, in most cases, their evident nature points to the internal metrical and rhytmical structure of the poetic discourse they form part of. The only deviation from this principle occurs in the verses of Serbian poets of today, who have very oft en evaded the strict syllabic and tonal patterns of Serbian prosody.

57 Natalia V. Danilevskaya (Perm)
Intellectual expression in scientific text: from the problem to the point

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The article deals with the problem of dynamics of meaning’s formation that takes place when the new scientific knowledge is being formed and expressed. The author substantiates the notion of cognitive evaluation as an instrument of text forming and stresses that the scientific activity is not only intellectual but emotional as well. The notion of intellectual expression as one of the basic stylistic and speech characteristics of scientific text is being introduced. The author also determines the text forming role of intellectual expression in the dynamics of verbalizing new scientific knowledge as that of high importance.

67 Andrey Stoyanovich (Belgrade)
Prepositional infinitive in the Serbian scientific prose of the XVIII to XXI century

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The construction za + infinitive is used across the Shtokavian territory from the XVI century (maybe even earlier) until these days.
In the Serbian scientific prose (in the area of Slavia Latina and Slavia Orthodoxa), the prepositional infinitive is more often found in the texts of the XVII and XVIII centuries (until the middle of the XIX century), whereas its usage in scientific and technical texts of the second half of the XIX century and over the XX and XXI centuries is far more restrained or sporadic.
The results of the conducted research refute the thesis on the exclusive ‘croatianity’ of the prepositional infinitive. In the pre-standard period, the construction za + infinitive was ingrained both in the Serbian texts of Slavia Latina (Catholic Serbs and Crypto-Serbs) and in the texts of Slavia Orthodoxa.

85 Yelena A. Bobko, Valeria E. Chernyavskaya (Sankt-Peterburg)
‘Verbalized history’: subject for research, means of cognition, and ideological instrument

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This article discusses ‘verbalized history’ as a subject matter for interdisciplinary research, a means of socio-humanitarian cognition, and an instrument of ideological influence. Based on the overview of research interests associated with these approaches, we consider linguistic problems to be of a particular importance, especially when analyzing scientific and ideological motivation in historical discourse. Specific features typical for the historical knowledge verbalization process are exemplified by neutral / biased use of xenonyms in texts related to the 20th century history of Russia.

95 Aleksander Kiklewicz (Olsztyn)
Semantic infantilism in the contemporary public discourses

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The subject of this paper is asymmetry of the two basic functional aspects of sentence/text: semantics and pragmatics. The author examines the phenomenon of pragmatics without semantics, i.e. such configuration of the form and structure of sentence, which is oriented towards the pragmatic function, without semantic function. In particular, the author is talking about the lack of the ontological representation, that it is impossible to interpret the sentence in terms of the category of truth. The author considers the psychological basis of the phenomenon “pragmatics without semantics”, in particular, tunnel vision and Pygmalion syndrome. Some sections of the paper are dealt with different types of discourse where the semantic value of expression is minimalized: propaganda, religious, artistic, scientific. Author shows the similarity between semantic infantilism and deconstruction. The author believes that the factor which determines the phenomenon of semantic infantilism in all spheres of public communication, is a growing degree of entropy in the system of modern culture.

113 Olga A. Leontovich (Volgograd)
Hearing What Has Not Been Said: the conveyance of cultural meanings in translated humoristic discourse

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The aim of the present paper is to investigate the dynamics of cultural meanings in the process of the translation of humorous discourse. The study is done on the material of “The Twelve Chairs” by I. Ilf and E. Petrov translated from Russian into English by J. Richardson. The objectives are: a) to define cultural meaning; b) to study the genesis of cultural meanings and the factors that influence their formation; c) to find out the ways of expressing cultural meanings in the process of the translation of comic texts; d) to analyse the arising problems and suggest ways to overcome them.
The investigation allows to draw the following conclusions.
1. The key factors that influence the formation of cultural meanings include: background knowledge; presuppositions; imagery as part of the nomination; its evaluative and emotional components; cultural context; connection with the precedent notions and texts; scripts, intertextuality, etc.
2. The understanding of the text presupposes the matching of the author’s and reader’s meanings supported by the common cognitive base.
3. The interpretation of cultural meanings involves two major tasks: 1) the understanding of its components and 2) the comprehension of the way these components are combined into a single whole in discourse.
4. The translation of a literary work is a process of its mediated transmission from one culture to another, during which the cultural meanings are adapted to the cultural literacy of the target audience.
5. The factors that can impair the integrity of the meaning continuum retranslated from one culture to another include: translation errors, inaccuracy in the expression of connotations, the reader’s insufficient cultural literacy, discrepancy between content and form, violation of the context distribution of the meaning components, difference in value systems and their expression in communicative behaviour.
6. In order to adequately interprete and transmit cultural meanings in humorous discourse a good translator should possess a high level of intercultural competence, which is a unity of linguistic, communicative and cultural competence.

125 Alexandr Gadomskiy (Simferopol)
Religious style research in the Ukrainian theolinguistics and its problems

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The terms of „religious language” and „religious style” are often used in contemporary linguistics. The problems of distinguishing, differentiating, description and terminology of Russian and Polish religious style have been already described and analysed by the author in many articles, where he took into consideration Russian and Polish scholars’ theories.
While in the 1990’s the Ukrainian language was introduced into the domain of religion (divine services, translations of prayers, publishing of religious literature), Ukrainian linguists commented the rebirth of another style of their language – the religious style (confessional, theological, sacral). In contemporary linguistics no one puts in doubt the role of religious style as one of other authorized functional varieties.
Thus, this problem is relatively intensely discussed in the Ukrainian theolinguistics in numerous works of Ukrainian linguists. On the basis of their analyses the author of the given article was able to trace the history of the researches, their main directions and terminology of the Ukrainian religious style, describe their research problems and how they are solved in the Ukrainian theolinguistics.
The author summarizes his considerations with a postulate to include religious style research in the general system of theolinguistics.

141 Irina V. Bugaeva (Moscow)
Stylistic features of works of Feofan Zatvornik

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Article is devoted to the description of lexical, grammatical, word-formation and syntactic features of Feofan Zatvornik texts. Feofan Zatvornik (1815–1894) was one of the most influential spiritual writers of the XIX century. Basis of language of works of Feofan Russian is the literary language of the middle of the XIX century which was formed for the XVIII–XIX centuries on the basis of Church Slavonic language and national dialects. Feofan works differ lexical wealth and a variety. The lexicon of his works is made by units which can be classified on different signs. Mixture of sublime, colloquial and dialect lexicon, Church Slavonic and Russian grammatical forms creates special style of works of Feofan Zatvornika. Despite all-Russian literary basis language of creations Feofan Zatvornika it is extremely peculiar. Almost on each page the reader meets special author’s words which are used for designation of this or that spiritual or a state of mind.

151 Ivana Knezevich (Belgrade)
Religious Style and Scientific Style in the Field of Theology: Similarities and Differences

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The stylistic characteristics of the scientific theological works are observed as components of the style of the scientifi c works in general. However, due to the special characteristics of the theology as a science, that is the fact that it deals with the questions of the religious sphere, on one hand, and due to the fact that religious style appears as a separate functional style (or functional stylistic complex) with it particular features, on the other hand, this essay will consider the uniqueness of the positioning of the stylistics of scientific theological works.
Besides, we will list some relevant classifications of the religious substyles of religious style, as well as its genres. We will also point to their intersections and the common characteristics with the sphere of the scientific works in theology.

163 Ksenya Koncharevich (Belgrade)
On constitutive characteristics of the orthodox sociolect in modern Serbian language (An essay on systematic-structural analysis)

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The term religious sociolect (religiolect) in this essay bears the meaning of a relatively stable, socially marked subsystem of the national language satisfying the needs for communication of a limited social group – the members of a particular religious community, reflecting a theocentric picture of the world and having specific lexical, phonetic-prosodical, formative and grammatical features. The language of the Orthodox clergy and church-going believers represents an independent microsystem, a religiolect belonging to Serbian national language, with its specific parameters and confessionally marked elements of all the levels of the language system organisation (orthoepic, graphic and orthographic, grammatical and lexical). The extralinguistic basis of the Orthodox sociolect consists of specific characteristics of the picture of world of the religious Serbian language speakers, as well as the constituents of their mentality – protectivity, sacrality, catholicity.

159 Daniela Slančová, Terézia Slančová (Prešov)
Communicative register as an alternative of functional style (on the background of the sport communication)

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The study deals with the problem of terminological specifi cation of communication within sport activities, mainly between coach and ball-game players. It shows, how the given communication can be interpreted by various methodological attitudes: theory of communication, text linguistics, theory of dialogue, stylistics, mainly socio-stylistics, and sociolinguitics, mostly on the background of Slovak (partially Czech) linguistic tradition. The concept of register is used as an alternative of the notion and term (functional) style. The application of register is explained in a broader interdisciplinary context of sociology, linguistics and sport humanistics.
The basic notion is the notion of social institution, which is understood as a relatively stabile, in a given society or group accepted, complex of rules and norms, including the norms concerning social norms. Among the norms determining the existence of a social institution, the norms regulating the linguistic and paralinguistic behavior are of special attention, as the existence of the social institution is also given by means of verbal communication. In this sense, the communicative sphere as a communicative space belonging to the social institution has been defined. Register is understood as conventionalized linguistic and paralinguistic behavior in two ways, as a macro-social communicative register, conventionalized linguistic and paralinguistic behavior within the institutionalized behavior, and micro-social communicative register, conventionalized linguistic and paralinguistic behavior bound to social status, social role and social distance.
Sport is an institutionalized physical activity, closely bound to the culture of a society. The sport communicative sphere is a communicative space bound to the sport as an institution. Sport macro-social communicative register is defined as conventionalized linguistic and paralinguistic behavior preferred in a sport communicative sphere. The role and status of micro-social communicative registers are applied within the sport macrosocial communicative register. The social role of a coach is determined by his/her specific position in a team and his/her communication with players is conducted by means of a coach micro-social communicative register in two main genres: training and match dialogue. Moreover, the register usage is influenced by coach’s individual personal style. While institutional behavior is a means of behavioral ritualization, individual personal style is a means of autonomous individual behavior.
The concept of social institution – communicative sphere – macro-social communicative register, micro-social communicative register – genre – style can be applied to different types of institutional communication.

189 Svetlana P. Bybyk (Kiev)
Colloquial style in the Ukrainian Language Didactics

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In the article the aspects of study of colloquial style are presented in school practice and in grammars, in-use in lingvodidaktike of higher school. Basic making concepts of colloquial style, colloquial norm, the key receptions of forming of normative colloquial speech at a student and in-use stylish markers of everyday unofficial intercourse are marked.
In particular, the starting point is the thesis that the colloquial style – a literary language daily reality, a situation common repetitive daily communication, a network of domestic lexical and syntactic, phonetic-orthoepic and mimic stereotypes of sign of verbal interaction “man – a man,” “people – the subject”. If the colloquial style of home a person learns from his birth in the family, it is genetic, and if in the process of learning in preschools, schools, universities, etc., it then becomes a sensible version of the literary and linguistic activity. This functional form of the language of everyday life formed in the national literary language only when he performs the role of language learning, education at all levels, leveling the regulatory framework under the influence of contact everyday language of aesthetic and artistic style of folk art, the mastery book (scientific, journalistic) lexical and syntactic structures to express their views, arguments. In the early stages of forming a correct verbal behavior is of great importance was done at orthoepic terms, expressive oral literary speech. Starting with a family environment, and then in preschools, schools and institutions of higher learning are formed and gradually improved language skills of children learning a sound (melody, orthoepy), and later graphics (graphics, spelling, punctuation) to way the national language, learn his vocabulary, semantic structure and grammatical rules.
Since the core of everyday colloquial style make up the elementary unit of the national language of everyday life, simple syntactic form of the means of expression, dialogical structure of text, it is fundamental to the mastery of other forms, techniques, genre and stylistic means of communication. According to our observations in the school and university practice learning the language specificity of the stylistic variety of the literary language is represented in different ways. This article shows an example of analysis of school textbooks and scientific, scientific and popular literature to students of philology.
Speaking stylistic norm has a high degree of variability in the phonetic-orthoepic, lexical and phraseological, word formation, morphological, syntactic and pragmalinguistic implementation. On the material of grammar, studies grammar and lexicology Ukrainian literary language shows a system of rules of colloquial style, which should be widely implemented in the school and teaching practices.

201 Halyna M. Syuta (Kyiv)
“Poetic Norm” in Categorial System of Contemporary Linguostylistics

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The concept of poetic norm is one of the main notions in modern linguostylistics and a standard unit of history of poetic language. With the correct and logical introduction into a modern scientific paradigm, this term may become the very synthesizing notion (in studying temporal, spatial, ethnic, cultural and idiostylistic features of literary language), which will claim the status of a standard unit of history of poetics, and, moreover, literary language. Distinction of poetic norm from literary norm is conceptually important to substantiate the categorial status of poetic norm.
In the present Ukrainian linguostylistics a norm is an active metalinguistic unit of the studies connected with the definition of distributive lingual-aesthetic criteria of word usage, image-building, text creation in the language of poetry and prose of certain literary epochs or trends, socially and culturally signifi cant periods, genres, etc. Freely using this notion to qualify and interpret certain features of a literary text, researchers point to the norms of poetic lexicon development, an aesthetic norm, a neologic norm, a phonostylistic text-structuring norm, a syntactic norm. At the same time an emphasis is placed on the fact that the lingual-aesthetic essence of poetic norm appears foreground against certain already formed canons, primarily of linguistic and literary norm. Language norm is interpreted as an external background to establish, implement and set scientific parameters of poetic norm.
The notion of poetic norm is to be analysed with due consideration of extralingual (specific features of the epoch, cultural priorities, moral values of the society) and intralingual (norms of word usage, level of literary language development) factors placing reliance on idiolectic norms.
Poetic norm is a historical category (hence correlation of literary language – poetic language remains symmetrical). Variability or its factuality is caused by the dynamic nature of poetic language itself, historic and social factors, intercultural contacts, general cultural level of society, influence of literary language and colloquial speech, etc. It also varies according to literary traditions, trends, stylistic tendencies, art schools and authors’ individual styles.
Indication of variability and stability of poetic norm is associated with the notions of tradition and innovation as well as clarification of temporal and spatial criteria of poetic norm. Recognition and setting of spatial criteria of poetic norm implies clarification of poetic units functioning peculiarities, usage of phonostylistic, word-building and grammatical means depending on where the poetry was written. This aspect is particularly relevant to the discourse with nominally distinguished diaspora segment.
Thorough studies of history of literary language can not but include studies of history of poetic language and poetic norm as one of its standard units which constitutes the most effective types of word usage, lingual-aesthetic transformation, tendencies to image- and text-building, etc. Specification of temporal, spatial and idiostylistic criteria of poetic norm, interpretation of typological and historical tendencies of its establishment gives an opportunity to demonstrate systematic relationships in the interaction of poetic and literary norms and outline a general picture of the development of national artistic style.

209 Radmilo Maroyevich (Belgrade)
Standard Language Norm In Formation (inversion in the epics “The Death of Smail aga Čengijić” by Ivan Mažuranić, and “The Ray of the Microcosm” by Petar II Petrović Njegoš)

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In this paper, in the example of the epic “The Death of Smail aga Čengijić” by Mažuranić (written and published in 1846) compared with the epic “The Ray of the Microcosm” (written in 1845, actually came out in 1846) by Njegoš, different types of inversion in verse have been compared, in the period when the Serbian standard language was in a formation stage, and when we can talk about the separation of its poetic style. The aim of the paper is to support the description of the type of the standard language which Mažuranić and Njegoš aspired to.
The type of inversion that was applied by Mažuranić – the use of an adjectival word in front of the preposition-noun connection – we see as a stylistic archaism, which primarily used to be one of the developmental stages in the process of replacing the nonprepositional construction with the prepositional one, so the preposition was first used only in front of the noun, because it was enough to indicate a precise meaning.
The type of inversion which was used by Njegoš – a spaced and prepositive use of the adnominal genitive – represents a stylistic neologism or individual stylistic peculiarity, since our poet, under the influence of the Russian language, “filled” the position of a congruent attribute, which is a characteristic of the Serbian language, with the incongruent attribute (primarily possessive genitive).

219 Serhij H. Chemerkin (Kiev)
Literary Norm Forming in the Context of Modern Stylistic Differentiation

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The main feature of the language in the late XX – early XXI century is its moving in the Internet. There were few styles and genres on the Internet before, but today we can talk about full stylistic diversity of the Ukrainian language in the communication environment. This makes it possible to use Internet tools to create standards and codification. With the help of search engines and found by differentiation of language units by style we can define their ratings in the language system. By this rating, you can add information about the sub-genres, genres of communicative situations and convert it to numeric values. Using the numerical values of a coeffi cient, which we give each new token (which we want to include in the dictionary), together with the frequency of use in the speech determines overall status of this unit in a language. This gives us the right to make allowance/prohibition of fixation in the dictionary, a list of rules. These characteristics neutralize subjective point of view.
This technique offers the prospect of stylistic digitization of material and in the Internet age it is especially important.

229 Adzhua I. Bairamukova (Karachaevo)
Germenevtichesky principles of oneiromancy and expressions in art texts and “The explanatory dictionary of living great Russian language” V. I. Dahl

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V. I. Dahl’s Germenevtichesky practice in art texts is reduced to the following germenevtichesky actions: 1) the art definitions built in the direct art text; 2) footnotes comments of various character from linguistic, lingvoentsiklopedichesky to purely actually encyclopedic; 3) cascade of proverbs and sayings.
Definitions and footnotes comments act as lingvoentsiklopedichesky analytical germenevtichesky indexes. V. I. Dahl’s lingvoentsiklopedichesky thought collects all data in the comment. V. I. Dahl’s comments indicate variety of his knowledge. V. I. Dahl’s linguistic reflection has property of an opredmechivaniye: during interpretation appear subject essence. V. I. Dahl’s lingvoentsiklopedichesky reflektiruyushchy look phenomenologically outlines concept. The look of reflektiruyushchy consciousness reaches deep senses of concept. Definitions and the comment on pages of art texts of V. I. Dahl takes place to be in all types of art texts. Interpretive strategy are caused by a comprehensive encyclopedic view of the world and V. I. Dahl’s unique linguistic abilities on information transfer. The art lexicographic reality is created. The encyclopedic facts double in a linguistic reflection through comments, and also intra text art definitions.
Interpretation principles in art texts and the Dictionary are: 1) principle of connection of linguistic and not linguistic (encyclopedic) knowledge; 2) an expansion and deepening principle «knowledge – about» a subject: V. I. Dahl goes from all-round «knowledge – about»; 3) principle of empirical confirmation. Comprehension of sense is given in linguistic reflective installation. The writer goes to knowledge analysis, we see process of cogitative activity. Encyclopedic experience of the author is used by the scientist in the form of interpretation.
During studying correlation of art texts and texts of the Dictionary of V. I. Dahl comes to light the unique nature of the Dictionary as “curtailed” form of lingvoentsiklopedichesky knowledge. The reality in the Dictionary is given as linguistically and is skilled the intelligent.

241 Radojka Vuksanović (Belgrade)
Lexical-semantic relation between the adjectives охол (haughty) and горд (proud) in Serbian

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Lexical-semantic analysis of the adjectives охол and горд in Serbian, on the synchronic plane, has shown that they realize their polysemic structure as a positive and negative meaning, each having different status in their polysemic structure. Both lexemes, used for expressing emotions, realize their meaning in the semantic field of the feeling of pride. The semantic field of “pride”, on the linguistic plane, polarizes into positive and negative meaning arranged as a gradational scale whose poles mark the meaning realization of adjectives охол 1 and горд 1, expressing a marked degree of the property contained in the neutral adjective поносан (proud). The meanings of lexemes охол and горд overlap in both segments of the field, but they have different hierarchical status in their respective polysemic structures. In the positive segment of the field, whose meaning is underlied by the seme “somebody who is aware of his/her worth”, we find the meaning realization of adjectives горд 1 and охол 2, whereas in the negative segment of the field, whose meaning is underlied by the seme “having or displaying excessive self-esteem”, we find the meaning realization of adjectives охол 1 and горд 2.

251 Milosav Veshovich, Zoran Rankovich (Belgrade)
The Semantics of the Lexeme πίστις in the Active Usage in the New Testament Tradition

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In this paper the specific characteristics of the active meaning of the noun πίστις in the Holy Scripture of the New Testament are discussed. The lexeme πίστις in the New Testament text has an active meaning of “trust, faith in someone, something”, and with complements – object genitive, prepositional complement – it means the concrete faith, where God appears as the object i.e. Godman Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

265 Alexandr V. Petrov (Simferopol)
Соnfiguration of Sub-field with the Core to Breed 1 in Russian Language

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The article presents the configuration of the sub-field with the core to give birth to 1, which is part of the predicate-actantial semantic field to give/give life to someone. In this paper we define the criteria of the linguistic units to the central and peripheral parts of sub-fields. In addition to the predicate part of the field stands actantial zone, organized by oververbal names which lexical meaning is directly connected with the invariant field. Actantial zone is also organized on the principle of core – periphery.

279 Senka Ivošević-İpek (Ankara)
Peak alignment properties of narrow-new focus in Serbian

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The present study investigates F0 peak alignment properties of narrow-new focused words in sentence-initial, -medial, and -final position in simple declarative sentences in Serbian. The study reports results of an acoustic experiment conducted with seven native speakers of Serbian. It is found that there is no difference in peak alignment of sentence-initial words in narrow-new focus and broad focus conditions. Peaks of the focused words in sentence-final position are retracted according to those in sentence-initial and –medial positions. It is found that peaks of falling accents retract more than peaks of rising accents, and that peaks of trisyllabic words retract less than those of disyllabic words.

293 Tatyana V. Radzievskaya (Kiev)
On one Syntax Development Tendency in Fiction Prose: Parenthetical Component in V. Nabokov’s Novel “The Gift”

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The paper deals with the role of a parenthetical component in the text of Vladimir Nabokov’s novel “The Gift” (1937) which is considered a master-piece of his Russian language period. The term “parethentical component” covers in the study of the writer’s syntax all inserted constructions like sentences, clauses, phrases, some words given in brackets. The insertion of a parenthetical construction in the main part of a sentence forms a compound syntactical unit and creates an additional semantic relation between its two parts. A high frequency and a large number of such parenthetical constructions in the text examined give us reason to suppose that their usage represents a stylistic device to produce a special effect based on structuring a sentence and inserting a substructure within its scope marked by some additional relations.
Analysing the syntactic techniques based on the usage of parenthetical constructions we take into account referential function of both inserted part of a sentence and its main part. An analysis of the novel narrative shows a variety of opposite relations between a parenthetical construction and a main one forming an esthetic effect which depends on syntactic form, semantics and localization of a parenthetical construction in a syntactic structure on the whole. It also reveals the combinatorial ability of writer’s linguistic consciousness and the cultural background of Russian formalism esthetics.

309 Lydia V. Savelyeva (Makhachkala)
The Multiplicity of Linguistic Knowledge and the Problems of Poly-linguistic Intertext (based on the material of Pushkin’s poems)

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The article “Multidimensionality of Linguistic Consience and Problem of Polylingual Intertext” treats the polilingual intertext as a particular form of polyglot person’s self-realization. The author’s communicative strategy as well as written speech style presentation tactic are being displayed in six different linguistic forms appearing in Pushkin’s epistolary practice. Thus the situation provides new linguocreative capacities of communicative distance increase/decrease effects, linguistic cipher, original quotation certifying, semantic/appreciative italics, various sorts of irony and split-tongue in order to restore the spirit of the appropriate national culture. All these features create maximum speech freedom that gives subtle intellectual and aesthetic pleasure to communicantes.
Polilingual intertext, Pushkin’s polilingual person, Pushkin’s letters, structure of linguistic personality, Russian-French bilinguism, composition-style device.

321 Andrei A. Bogatiryev, Olga P. Bogatiryeva (Tver)
On Styles in Fiction Text Combat Description (based on Russian, French and English Text analysis)

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The diversification of tendencies in rendering details of combat episodes and choosing certain accent in Fiction text construction is viewed as depending on genre of the text and an individual manner of the writer. Although the basic set of elements for combat scenes description virtually remains the same, the author may ignore or drop some of them (e.g. effectiveness) to lay major stress on efficiency, technique and / or weapons. This may often happen to convey in oblique way the narrator’s attitude towards some certain events or combatant characters. The genre frame also plays important role in interpretation of combat text faction. The principle of Poet’s Justice is widely concerned. That’s why authors often introduce some additional elements or special stylistic retouching techniques of rendering combat event in order to counterbalance its immediate purport with some genre proper alternative perception. So the whole picture receives a special tinge and the chapter or the whole story may receive another reading.

333 Ana Lupulovich (Belgrade)
Verses on “The Crosse” – The Holy and Life-giving Cross in the Divine Poems of John Donne

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The Cross is the symbol of Christianity, it is the symbol and the instrument of Christ’s Passion, but, the instrument of His victory over death, as well. The whole of the economy of Divine incarnation, and human salvation is founded on the Cross. As such, the Cross was a common motive in the Divine Poems of English poet and preacher John Donne (1571–1631). He praised it, defended it, glorified it and laid up all his hope upon Christ crucified on it. Through his confession of the Cross, not only in prose, in his sermons, but also in his verses, Donne shows how poetry can grow into a prayer.
In this paper we have tried to analyse the motive of the Cross in Donne’s religious poetry. This motive can be found in most of his divine poems, and it includes a certain number of sub-motives: the Cross in baptism, putting on Christ, Christ the Redeemer, Christ’s life-giving Blood, etc. In order to make this analysis comprehensive we have tried to provide a theological background for it. In this sense we have used the works of St. Gregory Palamas and Sergei Bulgakov.

345 Ana Peyanovich (Nikshich)
A critical edition of “The Mountain Wreath” by Petar II Petrović Njegoš

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In this paper, in the example of the epic “The Mountain Wreath” by Petar II Petrović Njegoš (written in 1846, and actually published in 1847), the methodology used for the preparation of a critical edition of the text is dealt with, with respect to linguistic levels (phonological, grammatical, lexical, onomastic), and in terms of explaining the “obscure places”, writing of words separately and together, and determining typographical errors.
Of particular importance is the clarification of the “obscure places” in the critical edition of The Mountain Wreath. The linguistic reconstruction provides evidence that language is a powerful and irreplaceable means of discovering deeper and hidden cultural contents. This is being emphasized by the very function of language that modern linguistics puts emphasis on. It is the significance of language, not only as an ordinary means of communication but also as a safeguard and translator of mentality, spirituality and cultural tradition of particular people.

353 Irina A. Shirova (Sankt-Peterburg)
On Truth in Science and in Art

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The article dwells on a complicated problem of truth in science and in art, verbal art, in particular. The analysis of truth actualization in these fundamental spheres of world perception bases upon the comparison of a scientific and an artistic ways of thinking. The truth in science, which is traditionally determined by how it relates to a reality, is treated not only as the main objective of science, but also as a constitutive and an essential feature of its ethos. Special attention is paid to anthropocentric tendencies in modern science, which influence the concept of scientific truth, the latter becoming pragmatized and subjectivized. As a support to this idea, the key notions of modern science – “paradigm” and “scientific community” – are involved into the discussion; the subjectivized character of truth is proclaimed dependent upon both of them. No less attention focuses around the so-called artistic truth, which is also subjective, no matter whether it refers to the artist’s or to the character’s perception of the world. The truth of the character, that is a medium of the author’s conscience, is described as connected with the character’s search for the sense of life and evaluative in nature. Thus, the article concludes, both in science and in art the idea of truth undergoes the same changes, determined by anthropocentric approaches to the world.

367 Ivo Pospíšil (Brno)
On the Concept of Eidology/Poetics of the Comparative Slavonic Literatures in the Context of Frank Wollman’s Work

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The present contribution contains the problem solved in two books written and published by Frank Wollman going back to the 1930s – The Literature of the Slavs (1928, German translation Die Literatur der Slawen, 2003, new Czech edition 2012) and On the Methodology of the Comparative Slavonic Literatures (1936) demonstrating them as crucial books anticipating some of contemporary developments in the sense of a wide, open synthesis of different sciences and methodologies. His concept of eidology was more flexible than some of the early concepts of formalists and structuralists overcoming the boundaries of immannent approaches.

Wollman‘s many-sided synthesis of poetological or eidological comparative literature:
1) connects poetics and comparative studies both in the synchronous and diachronous aspects which did not appeal to the early structuralists;
2) transcends from Slavonic literatures towards a more general level when it deals with the relation of the national and the supranational much earlier than some of contemporary Western critics in the concept of literary cultures and East-Central Europe – quite against Wollman’s conviction as he rejected even a notion Central Europe as inconsistent in literary scholarship;
3) relating in this sense different humanities demonstrating the necessity of the cooperation of general history and literary scholarship not on the basis of subordination;
4) on the basis of the investigation of literary forms and structures, i. e. eidology, opening a literary artefact for the many-sided analysis of various sciences and from several research angles.

381 Snezhana S. Bashcarevich (Leposavich)
The Archetypes in the Novel “The bridge on Drina” by Ivo Andric

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The archetype is the word which leads us to the theorist C. G. Young. This article is directly showing on Young’s attitudes about archetype and its relation with the novel “The bridge on Drina” by Ivo Andric. The novel “The bridge on Drina” has the archetype’s representations of the forces of creation, the forces of destruction and the old ritual of human scarification. We have seen them, analyzed them and connected them in the wholeness of the novel. Andric is introducing the old ritual of the human victim in the reality, by explaining it as the coincidence, without taking from it any attribute of the old scenario of the ritual sacrification. Searching in the frame of legendary, he removes its extremities. On one side, he is diminishing the message, the knowledge and viewing of the legend, on the other side, he is taking and makes the new form, some of its crucial elements. In his prose and essays, Andric does not mentioning oft en the myth. The communication with the myth, as the archaic and synthetic form is not direct. He uses more the other forms of traditional creation, which origin was the myth. The mythical is coming from the legends, traditions, stories, proverbs, popular artifacts. The legend is the constitutional element of the reality in Andric’s work. The writer is trying to make the most possible convincing the happenings in his prose. He is devoted to the patterns which are appearing on the individual and historical field. These patterns are close to the patterns which are called the archetypes by Young. Andric is trying to make the most convincing all happenings in his prose from the standpoint of possible and probably in the rational picture of the reality and happenings in that reality. In this article, we have shown on the basic principle of the Andric’s poetics, that the majority of legends have the collective archetype which is corresponding the live history.

393 Violetta Machnicka (Siedlce)
“Even a fine-toothed comb won’t find reason on a foolish head”. The aphoristic message of Bolesław Prus considered on the centenary of his death

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The article consists of an introduction and an analytical section, which provides an overview of the selected material with regards to content, form and context. The analysis covers two basic types of examples:
Text cited or paraphrased by Prus (including those wrongly attributed to him), as well as his textual allusions.
Prus’ own aphoristic output.
The article portrays the writer as an intelligent thinker and author of aphorisms, a witty and talented master of words. It also reviews several published works which contain the writer’s words of wisdom and discusses various ways of defining the terms related to aphorisms. Source materials encompass the entirety of Prus’ literary works: belles-lettres, journalistic works, artistic polemics, philosophical treatises, essays and correspondence. The main features of Prus’ aphoristic works are described with four key phrases: multiplicity of topics, contextuality, comical and ironic tone, exceptional perceptiveness and insightfulness.

413 Klara E. Stein, Denis I. Petrenko (Stavropol)
A. P. Chekhov’s prosaic text in the aspect of the harmonious organization

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In such complex texts as A. P. Chekhov’s works internal mental tension is created through cognitive “depth” of the text which is based on intentional conditions of heroes: they imagine, remember, dream, endure the joyful, sad, tragic moments of their life. E. Husserl refered these conditions to intentional and defined them as “consciousness about”, that is designing phenomena in consciousness with “removal beyond brackets” all previous knowledge. This is transcendental, internal, subjective, but at the same time the most pure and essential content of consciousness connected with the certain transcendental subject.
Chekhov’s heroes search essential content of their consciousness in the process of “reduction to clarity” thoughts, feelings, conditions that are reflected in the structures of consciousness – pictures, types, scenes. The narration layer becomes more complicated through creation of multilayered formation – a mental (non-language) layer which makes cognitive “depth” of the text and is formed on the basis of language layers. Multidimensional interaction of language and non-language (mental) layers leads to organization of a third harmonious layer – a layer of tonal shades which are realized through dynamic instructions of the author. Common tonal organization of Chekhov’s prose transfers a verbal row, cognitive “depth” of the text to that difficult condition which Chekhov defines as “feeling”, “mood”.
The main unit of the harmonious organization of Chekhov’s prose is a paragraph which in its invariant position is perfected, as a brilliant side. A paragraph represents an almost absolutely trimmed structure which has 1) the initial part setting a subject, a general tonality, 2) a developing part (the inverted contents), 3) a final part. Sometimes a paragraph makes a whole short story. An initial part and a final part of a paragraph are always very concrete and more often are expressed by simple sentences. An initial part gives a simple sign of a subject or an occurring event of the text. In a final part a simple construction (a simple sentence as a rule) gives a semantic result of an all paragraph. Sometimes the tonality is not set in an initial part of a paragraph, and could be found in a final part as quintessence of “feeling”. The complex tonality is created by designation of hero’s feelings, hero’s mood, a sound signal, color, temperature, light etc. and is transferred to a reader through activization of his psychological modi.

425 Larisa M. Nobina (Smolensk)
Paris in subjective reflection of K. Mann and S. Zweig

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The article deals with different authors’ styles of describing Paris, K. Mann’s and S. Zweig’s styles in particular. Both writers point out the versatile world of Paris, dynamics of the city life, its national and social diversity, democracy and tolerance of its citizens. K. Mann’s style is characterized by greater spontaneousness, simultaneousness, usage of visual code, prominent emotional colouring and vividness. S. Zweig depicts this immense city in a more quiet, reserved way, he underlines the impact of this city on the development of the world and national culture. However, his description also possesses expressiveness, which is achieved with the help of stylistic tropes and figures of speech.

441 Simona Korychankova (Smolensk)
The reflection of the artistic synthesis of the new age style

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Late 19th and early 20th centuries are often described as a breakthrough period, which affects all areas of cultural and spiritual life of man. The Russian society based on the French tradition finds its firm position in the development of its own theoretical concepts of modernism represented by the most influential figures of that time – S. Djagilev, A. Benois and M. Fokin. Russian ballet, music, art and costume design of the stage presentation along with the literary theme are becoming essential elements of the new art that notably affected not only the Russian reality, but also significantly influenced the European and world cultural scenes and the cultural climate of society. The basis of the new age style (Art Nouveau) is a synthesis and cooperation of artistic styles, which are based on the symbolic outreach connecting the everyday-life reality with the inner ideational and experiential world of man.

Book Reviewsdownload all reviews (1,31MB)

449 Mария П. Котюрова (Пермь)
Денис И. Петренко: Лингвистический витализм метапоэтики К. И. Чуковского / Под ред. д-ра филол. наук проф. К. Э. Штайн. – Ставрополь: Изд-во сгу, 2011. – 482 с.

456 Tadeusz Szczerbowski (Kraków)
М. Б. Раренко (ответственный редактор): Основные понятия англоязычного переводоведения: Терминологический словарь-справочник. – Москва: ИНИОН РАН, 2011, 250 с. isbn 978–5–248–00573–4

457 Mария Aндреевна Ширинкина (Пермь)
Валерия Е. Чернявская: Коммуникация в науке: нормативное и девиантное. Лингвистический и социокультурный анализ. М.: Книжный дом «Либроком», 2011, 240 с.

459 Клара Е. Штайн, Денис И. Петренко (Ставрополь)
Вера Васильевна Бабайцева: Система членов предложения в современном русском языке: Монография. – М.: Флинта: Наука, 2011. – 496 с.

462 Jована Jовановић (Београд)
Когнитивная поэтика: проблемы, опыт исследования; Современная русистика: направления и идеи; серия под редакцией Александра Киклевича и Аллы Камаловой, том 3; Olsztyn: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski, 2011, 169 стр. – isbn 978–83–61605–92–8

466 Ivo Pospíšil (Brno)
Jakub Bart-Ćišinski (1856–1909). Erneuerer der sorbischen Literatur/Wobnowjer serbskeje literatury. Sammelband der internationaler Konferenz zum 100. Todestag des Dichters. Bautzen und Panschwitz-Kuckau, 15.–17. 10. 2009. Herausgegeben von Dietrich Scholze und Franz Schön. Schriften des Sorsbichen Instituts/Spisy Serbskeho instituta, Domowina-Verlag, Bautzen 2011.

470 Jелена Jанковић (Београд)
Język poza granicami języka 2, Semantyka a pragmatyka: spór o pierwszeństwo, Tom 1. Aspekty lingwistyczno-semiotyczne, pod redakcją Aleksandra Kiklewicza, Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie, 2011.

Notes on Booksdownload Notes on Books (555KB)

475 Mария Aндреевна Ширинкина (Пермь)

Current Issuesdownload Current Issues (385KB)

485 Milan O. Raspopovich (Belgrade)
Natural and Artificial Intelligence

In Memoriamdownload In Memoriam (414KB)

493 Ivo Pospíšil (Brno)
Odešel slovenský slavista a rusista, literární vědec Andrej Červeňák (1932–2012)

497 Ivo Pospíšil (Brno)
Zemřel Slavomír Wollman (1925–2012)

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