Contents of No. 1


Style 2002

Articles

11 Branko Tošović (Graz)
Die Ästhetik der sprachlichen Beziehung

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zusammenfassung

In dem Artikel werden die folgenden Fragen betrachtet: (1) die ästhetische Beziehung als Quelle der ästhetischen Information, (2) die ästhetische Beziehung als Beziehung der Formen, der Bedeutungen, der Funktionen und der Kategorien, (3) die subjektiv-objektive Beziehung, (4) die Ästhetisierung der sprachlichen eziehungen, (5) die Ästhetik der polysemantischen, synonymischen, homonymischen und antonymischen Beziehungen, (6) das Subjekt der ästhetischen Beziehung, (7) die Wahrheit im ästhetisch-korrelativen Quadrat, (8) die Ästhetisierung des semiotischen Dreiecks, (9) die ästhetisch-korrelative Modelle und (10) die korrelativen Parameterisierung der ästhetischen Beziehung.

33 Zamir K. Tarlanov (Petrozavodsk)
Style, Structure, the Functional Span of Language

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The article treats style as to language structure and functional scale.

Stylistic analysis as a whole, however, is distincted from pragmatic, discursive and narrative one. The author also notes differences between West and East European linguistic tradition concerning the mere degree of the research interest ostensibility directed to problems of standard language and stylistics.
It is pointed out that the main advantage of the stylistic analysis is based on the fact that style itself is included in ethnoculture in general as an important component of the subject.

The author tracks the connection between language stylistics on the one hand and its structural resources, literary standard development, ethnolinguistic traditions on the other.

Extra and intralinguistic factors forming historically determined speech behaviour patterns are distinguished by means of the approach in question. The West European opinions on cognitive orientations of the so-called substantive and verb-centered sentences and their place in the field of stylistics are tested with reference to Russian syntax.

As a result the author reveals an internal connection between literary standard stylistical stratification as well as speech culture of a particular society and the degree of the artistic culture development of a particular ethnos. Ethnic and world languages are juxtaposed in the style divergence aspect.
Finally, the paper argues that the world languages which broaden the geographic space of their functioning at the same time simplify their style structure and abstract from ethnocultural connotations.

45 Milan Jelínek (Brno)
Implizität und Explizität der Kommunikation und des Styls

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zusammenfassung

Wie bekannt, wird der Stilbegri. gewöhnlich als Resultat der Wahl von Konkurrenzausdrucksmitteln definiert. Unter den Konkurrenzmitteln nehmen eine wichtige Stelle die jenigen ein, die sich durch verschiedene kommunikative Implizität, resp. Explizität unterscheiden. Es ist begreiflich, daß dieser Konkurrenztypus eine verhältnimäßig große Aufmerksamkeit der Linguisten auf sich zog.
Est ist zweckmäßig, die implizit-explizite Konkurrenz der Sprachsystemmittel von der kontextbedingten Konkurrenz abzusondern. Das Sprachsystem ermöglicht eine Regulierung der Implizität, abhängig von der Anwesenheit der nötigen grammatikalischen Mittel. Es gibt sogar Unterschiede zwischen einzelnen Sprachen (z. B. slawische Sprachen bieten Derivate an, die impliziten Charakter aufweisen, anstelle deutscher Komposita: tschech. krajk ř x deutsch. Spitzenwirker).
Im Artikel sind einige Fälle der Implizität bei der Bildung der Wörter und bei der Anwendung verschiedener syntaktischer Strukturen analysiert. Es wird darauf hingewiesen, daß die syntaktische Kondensierung mit einer Implikation bei der Wiedergabe der Beziehungen verbunden ist, und im Gegenteil, die wachsende syntaktische Kohärenz verlangt eine häheren Grad an Explizität. Weiterhin wird geprüft, wie die Metonymien und Metaphoren mit der Implizität zusammenhängen.

55 Tadeusz Szczerbowski (Kraków)
Various Ways of Understanding Style and a Chance of Integrity

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Difficulties in defining style results from its versatility. The word style has many different uses both in every day language and stylistics. There are many approaches to the phenomenon. I attempt to maintain neutrality and prompt stylistic ecumenicity, critical ecumenicity which does not mean we are to close eyes on difficulties, defects, divergence in views, but to realize both faults and merits. Many scholars concentrate on one or two aspects of style and ignore others because they limit their corpora to one genre, one type of text, etc. Critical, stylistic ecumenicity gives a chance of integrity.

67 Milosav Ž. Čarkić (Belgrade)
On the Notion of Style

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In order to partially define the notion of style, it is necassary to study the semiological structure of the language sign (both within a context and out of context) in all spheres of human life and work, and in doing this we should bear in mind that signs participate in the making of all structural creations of context (everything operates only in a context) and that numerous processes taking place in contexts depend on their behaviour. Therefore, when at issue is the style in language and literature, we must respect the meaning of a word and its use in language and literature, the meaning of the word out of context, its etymological or figurative meaning, the different kinds of conotation (ex pressive, evocative, projective), the interior form of the language, the link between the sound and meaning, the connection between phonetic and semiotic elements, the relationship between the vocal substance to the marked object, the relationship bewteen language and human spirit, the relationship between language and forms of thinking, the relationship between expression and content, the relationship between the meaning and marked function. We must in fact pay attention to the semiological processes including both the sign and what it denotes: the relationship between the sign and what it denotes, and the shift of that relationship; the bipolarity of the sign, the asymmetric dualism of the sign, the linearity of the sign, the randomness of the sign, the semiological field of the sign, its semiological area, etc, which represent in detail the nature of the sign, its make up, and function. Only this kind of study can lead to a more reliable and comprehensive understanding of the meaning of the notion of style in language and literature and in all verbal systems of signs.

79 Andrej Stojanović (Belgrade)
Functional Stylistics In the Serbian Language Area

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This paper represents a historical and analytical review of the development of the functional stylistics of the Serbian language, starting from 1950s. The fact is stated in domestic linguistics that the functional aspects of the study of style in non-fictional texts has been intensively developing since the 80s, primarily within the framework of contrastive researh in Russian and Serbian. Special emphasis is put on the role of unfavourable factors in the development of domestic functional stylistics (the harmful activities of A. Belić, M. Ivić, R. Bugarski, who justified status quo in Serbian studies).

105 Marija P. Katjorova (Perm)
Scientific Communication and Tolerance

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Scientific style is regarded as the way of actualization of a characteristic quality of “proper speech” – tolerance, interpreted in two sense: on the one hand, regarding the author’s expert and prognostical activity, i.e. complete understanding and favourable axiologization of previous knowledge (in other case it may be regarded as conscious or unconscious nontolerant speech behaviour of the author, using unfavourable language means); on the other hand, regarding the author’s intention to be understood by the reader, i.e. with the help of a set of logical operations, as well as actualization of his subjective view of the situation described, to achieve the effective communication.

119 Miroslav Dudok (Bratislava)
Contemporary Differentiation of Styles

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Taking into consideration the social, communicative and cultural indicators we have classified recent language styles as follows: style of text, interindividual style, author’s style, subjective styles, subjective-objective styles, objective styles, styles of individual disciplines, national styles and intraregional styles. Proposed model of style’s differentiation was applied to the most recent changes in the contemporary Slovak language and their’s reflection at the language level of style.

129 Srdan Bogosavljević (Belgrade)
Die Antiklimax

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zusammenfassung

Die Antiklimax ist die Resultante des Aufeinanderprallens von zwei oder mehreren disparaten Kodes bzw. der Spaltung des Gesamtkontextes in einen (um mit Riffaterre zu sprechen) Makrokontext, der, mit bestimmten Qualitäten versehen („Erhabenheit“, „Pathos“, „Ernst“ usw.), das interne Muster entfaltet – und in einen dieses unvorhersehbar durchbrechenden Mikrokontext, dem jene Eigenschaft en entweder gänzlich fehlen oder in einem viel geringeren Maße eigen sind. Das stylistische Verfahren, das sich aus einem solchen scharfen Kontrast ergibt, ist eben die Antiklimax.

Insofern das Gefälle zwischen dem Makrokontext (dem „höheren Pol“) und dem Mikrokontext (dem „niedrigeren Pol“) gewöhnlich – im weitesten Sinne des Wortes – axiologisch markiert ist, muß möglichst präzise das minimale „Wertdifferential“ bestimmt werden, das dem antiklimaktischen Kontrast zugrunde liegt. Einem solchen Bestimmungsversuch gilt der größte Teil unseres Beitrags. Die darin entworfene Typologie nach den Quellen des Kontrastes relativiert aber die Annahme der Inhärenz eines rein axiologischen Differentials: wenn es dem Makrokontext – dank der Quantität und Qualität seiner Konstituenten – gelingt, die Bedingungen der eigenen evaluativ-bedeutungsmäßigen, lexikalischen und tonalen Homogenität durchzusetzen, also die eigene – „unduldsame“ – Norm zu behaupten, so wird jede, sogar die harmloseste Einzelheit, die dieser nicht entspricht, als ein Verstoß gegen sie empfunden – genauer, als der Mikrokontext, der im kontraststift enden Zusammenfluß mit einem solchen Makrokontext die Möglichkeit des Sinkens eröffnet.

Der Teil unserer Arbeit, in dem Lotman's Th eorie des Aufb aus des literarischen Textes instrumentalisiert wird, zeigt weiter, daß der „Gegenkode“ zum „erhabenen“ „edlen“, pathetischen“, „poetischen“ Kode oder Kodekomplex nie diesen völlig aufh ebt. Im Gegenteil: indem beide im wechselseitigen Durchdringen gleichzeitig funktionieren, bilden sie einen „Überkode“, in welchem der „Grundwiderspruch“ in seinem oxymoronartigen semantischen Impuls ausharrt und keiner „Seite“ das Recht auf den Status des „Wesentlichen“ geschenkt wird. Die übergreifende Bedeutung einer antiklimaktischen Konstellation ist somit stets relational.

In der Antiklimax ist vielmehr die Information über die intentionale Bewegung des semantischen Gestus in Richtung auf scheinbare Vereitelung des eigenen Ziels – der Vereinheitlichung des Textsinnes – enkodiert; dem semantischen Gestus einer antiklimaktischen Konstellation haft et der zwiespältige Versuch an, den Widerspruch in die Bedeutungseinheit zu integrieren, ihn dennoch gleichsam ausgeklammert in seiner Gegenläufigkeit zu belassen.

Niederschlag einer komplexen Sintagmatik, die – dem „metaphorischen“ Prinzip gemäß – die meisten Kombinationsverbote auf der entsprechenden Axis außer Kraft setzt, entbindet die Antiklimax eine pragmatische Energie, die das Erlebnis der Welt als eines engmaschigen Netzes von festgefügten Sinn-, Wert- und Normsintagmen verunsichert. Gerade darin – und nicht in dem angeblich niedrigen Wahrscheinlichkeitsgrad des Erscheinens eines bestimmten Gegenkodes – ist der Informationsanspruch der Antiklimax begründet. Das macht sie zum Stylem par excellence.

153 Andrei A. Bogatirjev (Tver)
Conceptualization and Idealization Techniques of Artistic Text Interpreting

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Interpreting of a text is considered a goal-seeking activity of a reader. It has to do with a text concept, dealing with final limits of a proper interpretation. On one hand the very method of interpreting any literary text (artistic or not) is influenced by its strategic aims. On the other hand the declared aim of stylistic analysis to penetrate the aesthetic idea is sometimes not properly supported by corresponding interpreting techniques. The notion of technique is treated as any schema of meaning perception exposed to rational categorization on behalf a reader. Some interpreting techniques may prove relevant and effective in one range of texts and meanings, some interpreting techniques may prove good for another range of texts and meanings. A writer may chose between a number of rhetoric means to convey the concept of the text and a reader may chose between a number of interpreting techniques.

It should be pinpointed that stylistic analysis, hermeneutic interpretation and poetics of a text form a unity indispensable. The text type directed notion of individuation needs to become central in linguistic poetics so that any stylistic discovery in a text might contribute to assessing the values of a text either as absolute or as relative from the point of view of Language as a whole dynamic unity. The line between artistic and non-artistic literary text lies in distinguishing between artistic idea (aesthetic in proper sense) and a definite moral notion as a main text intention. So there are two different trends in text processing – idealization aimed at artistic idea and conceptualization aimed at grasping a text moral notion. The present thesis claims the possibility of linguistic verification of qualitative bias of the text towards conveying aesthetic idea. There are special schemata of text construction and text interpretation, deduced from the classical notion of artisticity and aesthetic idea, that ought to contribute much enough to reader’s apprehension of the text as an artistic one. The dynamic schemata of such kind can be described from the point of view of cognitive approach in such terms as artistic idea and sense intervality.

While the artistic idea is considered as a constitutive intention trait of artistic text production, the sense intervality is considered as a constructive trait of artistic text processing. The intervality is a substantial notion referred to the accidental notion of Sense Interval. The Sense Interval is defined as presented to the reader’s consciousness by objectively fixed self-identical textual data conflicting non-identity of meaning perspectives of the verbal expression in the text. The conflict of possible interpretations so pre-programmed is aimed at stimulating the reflective ability of the reader to critically reconsider and reinterpret the starting points of his prejudiced meaning expectations. As in fact the realm of artistic text deals par excellence with the realm of human subjectivity, the matters of the final meaning horizons of individual human being are involved in the question of the correct interpretation. The article demonstrates sense intervality preprogrammed in a story by Vassily Shukshin by means of implicit etymologization of crucial individual words and predications in the text.

165 Radka Vlahova (Sofia)
Диалогическая речь: стратегии понимания и псевдопонимания

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В статье рассматриваются стратегии в диалоге в свете философских идей о речевых актах и интерактивном говорении. На основе образцов мировой литературы на славянских языках обособляются три модели. Они представляют различные стратегии вербального общения и языковые средства их реализации.

173 Jana Hoffmanova (Praha)
Stil der Erzählungen der Angehörigen der ältesten Generation

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zusammenfassung

Der Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Stil der Sprache der Angehörigen der ältesten Generation; die Verfasserin interessiert sich dafür, wie sich alte Menschen ausdrücken, wie sie erzählen und wie sie den Dialog mit den jüngeren Leuten führen. Die Forschung stützt sich auf die Analyse eines umfassenden Komplexes von Tonbandaufnahmen der Kommunikation zwischen Grosseltern (Urgrosseltern) und ihren Enkelkinder, bzw. der Kommunikation in einem Seniorenheim. Die Tonbandaufnahmen der Gespräche ermöglichen, den Stil und den Aufb au der narrativen Texte zu erfassen, aber auch spezifische Formen der Interaktion zu analysieren, z. B. die Sequenzen, wo der ältere Erzähler dem jüngeren Zuhörer einen unverständlichen Ausdruck erklärt, oder wenn der jüngere Partner dem Älteren hilft, sich auf einen vergessenen Ausdruck zu erinnern. Es ist wichtig so viel wie möglich darüber zu wissen, mit welchen Kommunikationsproblemen sich alte Menschen auseinandersetzen müssen – und mit welcher Sprache die jüngere Generation mit ihnen sprechen sollte. Und es ist auch interessant zu vermitteln, welche Welt mit der ältesten Generation untergeht (welche Ansichten, Einstellungen, Überzeugungen usw.)

181 Tetjana V. Radzievska (Kiev)
Memoir Texts from the Aspect of Pragmatic Linguistics (Related to the Issue of Style Formation Factors)

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Memoirs stylistics is analysed in relation to the pragmatic conditions of text constructing. Two factors of text constructing are especially relevant: 1) memory factor which deals with retaining and reviving impressions of a writer and constitutes indispensable component of constructing text of this type, and; 2) communicative competence factor caused by absence of obstacles in realization of author’s communicative competence, nominative habits and discursive preferences. Ukrainian and Russian memoirs written by artists, actors, servicemen are examined.

As a result of the memory factor functioning, memoirs narrative includes expressions to signal switches by association from one episode to another, metatextual utterances representing various aspects of memory in “action”, memory verbs as modal operators expressing writer’s propositional attitudes. Another display of the memory factor is actualization of visual component of verbal activity of a writer. It is represented by using vision predicates and descriptive structures, choosing nouns, verbs, adjectives etc. to elucidate concrete specificity of an action, an event, a situation. These linguistic devices specify narration in memoirs as a text type.

It is argued that the communicative competence factor affects a writer’s guidance by his own communicative experience covering both active and passive competence in using speech genres, stylistic variation, stereotypes of oral and written communication. Owing to this fact, the text of memoirs forms as a projection of writer’s linguistic personality.

195 Elena G. Zadvorna (Minsk)
The Mental Predicates in the Poetic Idiostyle (comparative analysis of the epistemic characteristics of the poetry of M. Cvetaeva and A. Achmatova)

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We think that the study of epistemic characteristics in the poetic idiostyle allows to reveal most relevant features of a certain poetic world, which can not be achieved by other types of analyses.

The comparative analysis of the epistemic characteristics of Marina Tsvetayeva’s and Anna Akhmatova’s idiostyles is based on the following research procedures:

• revealing the idiostyle mental dominant, i.e. the most typical mental state of the lyrical subject;

• determining the prevailing mental situation of the idiostyle, i.e. the mental interrelations of the lyrical subject and the other/others;

• analyzing mental pressure that the lyrical subject exerts on the other/others (if any).

The mental dominant of Tsvetayeva’s idiostyle is “knowledge”, which manifests itself by an extensive use of such predicate of the propositional attitude as to know (знать). The main mental situation of this idiostyle is “I know – others do not know”. The lyrical subject exerts intensive mental pressure on others, i.e. she tries to share her knowledge with the world, to prove to the addressée that she is right, etc, which is reflected through a frequent use of such imperatives as пойми(те), поверь(те), знай(те), and so on.

On the surface, epistemic peculiarities of Akhmatova’s idiostyle resemble those of Tsvetayeva’s. The same mental dominant “knowledge” and mental situation (“I know – others do not know”) are revealed in her poetic world. However, some difference can be observed by comparing mental dominants: Akhmatova’s lyrical subject often feels that her knowledge is abundant, excessive, even agonizing, and that’s why she expresses her wish not to know or forget something. But the main difference lies in Akhmatova’s lyrical subject’s attitude to mental pressure on the addressée. The lyrical subject has no need to overcome her epistemic isolation and deliberately withdraws into her inner world.

209 Switlana Iwanenko (Kiew)
Взаимосвязь стилистики и поэтики. Музыкальность художественного произведения

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В статье рассматривается взаимосвязь между поэтикой и стилистикой и их место в современной лингвистике, подается краткий обзор научной литературы на эту тему, подчеркивается анализ поэтики в рамках триады: стилистика языка, стилистика текста, функциональная стилистика, а также демонстрируется исследование одного из маркеров художественного текста – «музыкальности», на материале произведения Роберта Вальзера Баста и личного перевода на немецкий язык стихотворения Миколы Воробъева Отодвинешь ты стол.

219 Reinhard Ibler (Marburg)
О соотношении двух редакций стихотворения Вокзал Б. Пастернака: стилистические, семантические и функциональные значения

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Об изменениях в эстетическом мышлении и в поэтическом системе Бориса Пастернака, происходящих в двадцатых годах, много писалось. Ранняя лирика десятых и первой половины двадцатых годов отличается особой способностью поэта, развертывать спонтанные восприятия и непосредственное переживание к весьма оригинальным ли ри ческим сюжетам. Творческая эволюция Пастернака протекает по линии от абстрактного к конкретному, от изо бра жения поверхностных, беглых впечатлений к всеобъемлющим сюжетам. Стихотворения в целом становятся более ‘понятными’. Это относится, например, к лирике в сборнике Второе рождение (1932), а также и к переработкам ран ней поэзии. В 1928-ом году Пастернак подверг стихотворения своих сборников Близнец в тучах (1913) и Поверх барьеров (1917) коренному преобразованию. Не только радикальность переработки, оставляющая во многих случаях очень мало от первоначального вида текста, указывает на то, что Пастернак в этом процессе стремился к более вы со ким целям, а не только к формальной шлифовке, стилистическому разглаживанию и семантической точности. Об суждая эстетические взгляды и поэтическую концепцию своих художественных начал, он пережил время интенсивной внутренней борьбы, которая кончилась его «вторым рождением»: в этой трансформационной редукции раннего творчества, в его ‘внесении’ в настоящее и в приспособлении к новым условиям автор хотел заложить основу для новой фазы своего творческого развития. Несколько характерных черт этого трансформационного процесса продемонстрированы в данной статье на основе теоретических размышлений (о проблеме текстовых изменений) и на при мере двух редакций стихотворения Вокзал.

233 Lada G. Panova (Moskva)
O. Mandelstam’s Poetic Stylistic Figures

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Mandelshtam’s (1891–1936) poetry, highly metaphorical, provokes different interpretations. Despite of many valuable insights into the nature of Mandelshtam’s metaphors we are still unaware of links between them and the author’s world picture.

The focus on cognitive aspects on Mandelshtam’s metaphorization made me revise the traditional approaches to tropes. In this article different tropes are viewed not separately, but in a proposition; as a result I distinguish three different types of metaphorical constructions in an utterance: “codeless” (one trope per proposition), “one–code” (two or more semantically connected tropes in a proposition), “multi–code” (two or more semantically unconnected tropes). The most frequent type in Mandelshtam’s poetry is one-code proposition; it is also the most typical because Mandelshtam’s poetry speaks about the nature of things.

The theoretical points are illustrated with analysis of Mandelshtam’s metaphorical texts. Studying the most difficult of Mandelshtam’s metaphors one can not deal only with traditional methods (with or without tertium comparationis). Based on original mandelshtamian logic, intertext, sound similarity with other words of the poem etc. these metaphors appear a hard nut to crack – they are certainly not an easy ciphered message which can be as easily deciphered. Such metaphorical extracts from Mandelshtam’s poetry and their analysis could be regarded as contribution to the “art” of interpretation of poetic tropes.

249 Katarzyna Wyrwas (Katowice)
The Complaint in Poetry

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The aim of this article is to describe the poetic version of complaint which is treated as the genre of speech that serves to express the speaker’s negative emotions. The author recognizes complaint as a separate kind of text, composed of sequence of elements. According to the textual pattern conception she carries out the reconstruction of complaint textual pattern. She presents the reconstruction of poetic complaint’s basic and developed structure. The article also shows the similarities between literary genres which structure could be based on complaint textual pattern, for example lament, elegy, threnody, nenia, querela.

265 Alena Jaklová (České Budějovice)
Poetik im Dienste der Persuasion

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zusammenfassung

Im Aufsatz wird der Begri. Persuasion erklärt, und zwar im Zusammenhang mit publizistischen, rhetorischen und Werbetexten. Weiter werden die phonetischen, morphologischen, syntaktischen und lexikalischen Ausdrucksmittel analysiert, die poetische und zugleich auch die persuasive Funktion stimulieren. Die Analyse wird an tschechischen publizistischen Texten durchgeführt und alle Typen der verbalen Ausdruckmittel werden mit aktuellen Zitaten belegt

273 Anna Ginter (Łódz)
Из наблюдений над синестезией и звуковой инструментовкой «Лолиты» В. В. Набокова

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Литературно-поэтическое творчество и переводческая деятельность В. В. Набокова характеризуются отсутствием грани между поэзией и художественной прозой, между средствами, традиционно используемыми только в поэзии, и теми, которые встречаются исключительно в прозе. Такого рода подход к творчеству, а также уверенность в особом значении звуковой инструментовки являются причиной того, что романы В. В. Набокова насыщены многими разновидностями стилистических средств.

Синестезия как подвид метафоры, который основывается на проецировании одной чувственной сферы на другую, представляет собою один из наиболее любопытных поэтических феноменов. Синестезия часто используется Набоковым, так как она гармонирует с присущим ему талантом «цветового слуха», причем сложный хакартер синтестезии давал ему возможность передать сложные эмоциональные состояния.

В «Лолите», одном из своих самых поэтичных романов, писатель почти в равной степени использует звучание и значение. Элементом, определяющим фоническую организацию текста, становится имя (включая всевозможные его варианты) главной героини. Наиболее часто повторяющимися оказались согласные звуки, содержащиеся в имени девушки; значение ее фамилии (Haze) имеет существенную роль в пейзажах, созданных автором как фон действия, причем в зависимости от эмоционального настроения повествователя ассоциации по звучанию с именем порождают розовые, фиолетовые, голубые или серые оттенки.

Приводимые аспекты представляют собою главный предмет исследования в настоящей статье, являясь попыткой описания ключевых стилистических феноменов в прозаических произведениях В. В. Набокова. Они свидетельствуют о высоком мастерстве изображения при помощи взаимного наложения.

285 Nurja M. Tomanova (Almata)
The Poetry of the Pronouns in Innokentij Annenskij’s Lyric Poetry

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The article under the title “The Poetry of the pronouns in Innokentij Annenskij’s lyric poetry” is referred to a number of studies on linguistic poetry – to the trend which appeared at the junktion of the pure linguistics and literary knowledge poetry.

Subject of the study is creative context of I. F. Annenskij. Description of the poet’s creative concept and means of its lingual expression still remains a goal to strive at for the researchers in the field of the language of the literary works.

In the presented work a general linguistic and philosophical basis of Annenskij’s creative that contributes to the deeper and full interpretation of the integrated literary system of the author is revealed.

Pronouns having an active functional significance in the poet’s creative context have become the subjects of the study of the work. To describe pronominal words as stilistic elements of the creative context, temporary reference theory was applied.

Pronouns – kernel dominant means of conveying literary sense in the Annenskij’s lyric works. Pronominal words “I – here – now”, being pragmatic variables constitute principal deictic scope of the artistic picture of the Annenskij’s world. Pronominal words as stylistic units of individualized stylistic sistem can develop potential expressive meaning within the frames of the author’s context beginning from peripheral meaning till kernel meaning. Units with pragmatic characteristics of “indefiniteness” are referred to the stylistic periphery. Pronominal words with pragmatic characteristics of “indefiniteness” – to the stylistic kernel because they participate in creation of the intentional world in the Annenskij’s lyric poetry.

Lingual and poetical analyses of the poems which were included in the books “Soft Songs” (“Тихие песни”) and “The Cypress Casret” (“Кипарисовый ларец”) is revealed in the work

299 Anna Bednarczyk (Łódz)
On Some Shifts in Associations (for Example the Poems of Marina Cvetaeva Translated by Joanna Salamon)

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The author analyses translation’s shift s on the association’s plane. The base are the poems of M. Cvetaeva and their Polish translations whose author is J. Salamon.

The author peculiarly is interested in these shift s which evoke in the recipient’s consciousness emotions other than original text does. She considers association’s chains, pairs of antonyms and intertextual elements in the original and translation text and observes some regularity of the translation. Especially they are specification or narrow down to semantics of translated element of the original text.

311 Milana Radić-Dugonjić (Belgrade)
Serbian Language Type and the Bilingual Lexicography

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The “naive picture of the world” contains conceptualized knowledge of a man about the world that surrounds him. Current knowledge is reflected by the system of linguocultural isoglosses, that contain variant as well as invariant elements, which belong to the national language type. Those elements play the decisive role in constructing the dictionary article of an active bilingual dictionary of similar languages.

In the current article, based on the concept страх (fear) in Serbian language, the author tries to reveal the scenarios that are characteristic to the Serbian language type, and thus represent required structure components of the dictionary article of the active Serbian-Russian bilingual dictionary.

319 Irina P. Kudrevatih (Minsk)
The Category of Tense as a Re. ection of Systemic Relationships of Information Blocks in a Literary Text

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The object of research is the art text & its semantics as the attitude of the contents to the means of expression, its profound perspective. All the language elements in the art text are semantic ones, they are the means of creation of expressiveness – peculiar shades of meaning, added to the main meanings; & the work of art itself – is a particular type of aesthetic, stylistic verbal structure. The analysis of the art text is carried out from the complex unity to its components. The subject of the research are the logical grammatical & stylistic units – blocks of information – & their distant connections at the whole text level as a system. Block of information is considered to be an aesthetically organized unit of the art text, as the condition of creation of an artistic image; distant relations of blocks of information in their turn are considered to be the way of verbal artistic depiction. The connection between intralinguistic & extralinguistic features in art speech, the peculiarities of interaction between lexical semantic & syntactic levels in organization of speech structure determine functional stylistic meanings of different text categories, one of which is the category of time. Besides, they are also the main style forming factor as they promote the associative contaminations which produce the certain stylistic effects. The category of time is examined in close interaction with art creativity of the writer & consequently is investigated in 2 aspects: grammatical time & artistic time. he artistic time reflects the individual position of the author, storyteller, or character & therefore it is a subjective one. Temporal relations in the art text at a level of integrative connections of informational blocks to the greatest degree determine the originality & dynamics both of subject development & dynamics of characteristic of artistic images. The category of temporality appears in the role of notional category of expression of temporal relations; it is presented in various ways in the works of different writers. As a result of analysis of ways of expression of temporal relations in the art text the semantic & grammatical stylistic potential of the given category in the works of different authors (M. Lermontov, I. Bunin, A. Kuprin, Y. Nagibin) is defined.

339 Marko Stabej (Ljubljana)
Deictic Structures in Slovenian Orations of the Second Half of the 19th Century

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Deixis is a special semantic function of certain linguistic features, usually used in spoken communication. In written texts the deixis has mainly a secondary, cohesive function; except for the poetry texts, where the deixis creates an opportunity of establishing the multi-layered speech event with virtual co-presence of all participants, including the addresser and addressee, both fictional and real.

In Slovenian poetry of the second half of 19th century (the corpus comprised 7 collections of verse dating from 1854 to 1890) the extensive use of the deixis can be found. Its textual function varies strongly; there are many cases of relatively simple and highly anticipated functions, e.g. designating ‘I’ and ‘You’ participants. On the other hand, deixis also provides very e. ective ways of constructing dynamic complexity of the textual world, either by concealing its firm referentiality (and thus allowing the reader to infer more intensely) or by manipulating its time and space dimensions. The examples from the Slovenian poetry show some of the most typical and innovative uses of deixis.

The deixis should be analysed holisticaly, together with other linguistic features of the poetic text, in order to get the clearer insight of how the text can provide the reader with the sense. The positivistic approach to text was quite different: the deixis was rather a puzzle to be solved than an incertitude to enjoy.

349 Natalija A. Fatejeva (Moskva)
Contemporary Russian ‘Feminine’ Prose: Modes of Self-identification of Women as Authors

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In the article we analyze some linguostylistic and narratological phenomena that show different ways by which a woman writer represents herself in the text. We think that the answer to this question lies in the character of narrative strategies that a certain woman author chooses for her own way of writing. We check the hypothesis that all women writers can be divided into three groups according to their creative intents: those who (1) adopt men’s way of perception and create play substitution of women’s angle of approach; (2) make an accent on their women’s identity and generate a peculiar “women’s writing”; (3) try to avoid identification with certain gender, but in fact they try to “part” with their feminine sexual identity.

We particularly dwell upon grammatical collisions that occur when the author is to make a choice of her gender attribution and analyze diminutives and particular features of women’s language creativity that usually has some erotic connotations. From this point of view we study the language material that undergoes symbolization and metaphorization in women’s texts. Special attention is paid to the tendency of negation that is typical for the modern women writers.

Texts that belong to different types of the modern Russian women’s prose are used as a material for the analysis. Among these texts are: intellectual ones (T. Tolstaja, L. Fomenko, M. Rybakova, N. Gabrieljan etc.); novels and dramas of everyday life (L. Ulickaja, M. Vishnevickaja, V. Tokareva, O. Novikova etc.), erotic-postmodernist prose (V. Narbikova). Of course each woman author generates her own style of writing but usually she varies her manner and in fact it is possible to speak about ‘individual polystylistics’.

363 Marten D. Feler (Kiev)
Ukrainian University Course of Word Editing (the Text – the Author’s Level – the Reader’s Perception)

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In the former Soviet Union the task of the editor was not just to prepare a piece of writing and its text but sometimes to make significant changes in it. For this reason, in Russia, where the of word editing originated as a university course, the difference between studies in standard’s speaking and in of word editing was not serious. In the meantime, of word editing in Ukraine from the very beginning was focused on the communication process transferring the piece of writing and its text from the author to the reader and also its goal was to ensure the maximal possible adequacy of the perception of the author’s message by the reader. It was focused also on the editing as a comparison and on the filling a gap between the author’s message (the author’s level) and the reader’s perception through making necessary corrections.

The theory of word editing in Ukraine had its roots in certain aspects of rhetoric proposed by Aristotle, which are scarcely mentioned now. In Aristotle’s view, the content of an address (which is now to referred as a communication act) speaker – address (in Aristotle’s word’s, the address itself) should be supplemented with two crucial points: first of all, the listener is the paramount target and the most important thing, while “the style” of the address depends on the depravity of the listener, his ability or inability to understand the address if no style was employed. Secondly, Aristotle’s rhetoric is psychologically motivated. The categories of listeners, addresses and speakers are defined by three psychological factors in the listener’s perception: a) unequivocal pathos, emotions; b) the ability and readiness to make judgement on the basis of examples, factual knowledge is important for the second type of the listener; c) the readiness to accept complete knowledge regardless of any pathos.

Ukraine used to have extremely powerful tradition of teaching rhetoric stemming from Feofan Prokopovych who paid special attention to the psychological aspect of listener’s perception of the address as well as the author’s work on it.

Significant part of the concept of the Ukrainian of word editing is dedicated both to modern theories of adequate translation and to the communication act, as well as the tradition of Ukrainian linguistics which views communication as the process of getting across not only textual elements from the author’s address but rather creating the thought in “the reader’s mind” by them.

To this end, the characteristic of clarity was proposed as the ability to organize the thought of clear and consistent structure of the text. Looking for neuro-psychological explanation of the phenomenon of clarity, R. Ivanchenko analyzed the notions of “perspective in the text” – its expectable or unexpectable development; of the amount of information associated with every sense unit; elliptic narration etc.

One of the crucial points of word editing is the analysis of the text creation process, by author and by the addresses.

375 Guy Russell Torr (Kraków)
Ориентация читателя: Иван Бунин и наблюдательность эмигранта. Анализ краткого рассказа Бунина Надписи

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Статья представляет собой попытку анализа рассказа Ивана Бунина Надписи в свете знаний потенциального читателя по географии.

Автор статьи показывает сложность процесса географической ориентировки читателя, воспринимающего – как в переводе, так и в подлиннике – тексты, язык которых не является для него родным. Автор задается вопросом, какова моральная ответственность переводчика за указания, даваемые читателю, а следовательно – за то, что он ведет читателя в какотором определенном направлении.

Путем анализа самого процесса чтения, а также роли, какую в работах отдельных переводчиков и литерарурных кририков играют примечания и карты, автор надеется указать на различие между актами чтения рядового читателя и профессионального переводчика. Это различие приводит порой к необходимости селективного подчеркивания того, что (естественно, субъективно) считается переводчиком существенным.

Этот отбор заметно влияет на способность читателя сосредотачиваться и наблюдать. Он также приводит иногда к возникновению резко отличающихся друг от друга вариантов одного произведения.

Book Reviewsdownload article (1,23MB)

387 Stanisław Gajda (Opole)
Aleksander Wilkoń, Spójność i struktura tekstu. Wstęp do lingwistyki tekstu, Kraków: Universitas, 2002, 304 s.

391 Vladimír Patráš (Banska Bistrica)
Čechová, Marie, Komunikační a slohová výchova – Praha: Institut sociálních vztahů-nakladatelství, 1998. – 226 s.

394 Aleksandar Milanović (Belgrade)
Novo Vuković, Putevi stilističke ideje, Univerzitet Crne Gore – Jasen, Podgorica – Nikšić, 2000, 235 s.

396 Nataša Vulović (Belgrade)
Milosav Ž. Čarkić, Uvod u stilistiku, Naučna knjiga, Beograd 2002, 289 s.

399 Aleksandar Milanović (Belgrade)
Branko Tošović, Funkcionalni stilovi, Beogradska knjiga, Beograd, 2002, 574 s.

Notes on Booksdownload article (999KB)

403

Notes on Contributors

415

Instruction to Authors

429


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