WAR AND THE HOLY
II. WAR AS EXPERIENCE
III. WAR AS LIE
IV ETHICS, RIGHT AND WAR
V SOUL AND WAR
VI. PEOPLE AND WAR
VII. UNIVERSE AND WAR
The Lamb of God and the Beast from the Abyss: Philosophy of War
Collected Papers from the Second Theological-philosophical Symposium Held During The Days of Saints Cyril and Methodius
Edited by: Rados M. Mladenovic & Hierodeacon Jovan (Culibrk)
Publisher: SVETIGORA, Publishing house of Metropolitate of Montenegro and Littoral, Cetinje, Yugoslavia 1996.
WAR AND THE HOLY
Archbishop dr. Amfilohije (Radovic), Metropolitan of Montenegro and Coastal Lands, Cetinje
ST PETER OF CETINJE AND WAR
St Peter, the archbishop of Cetinje, was rightfully compared with Moses and Jesus Navin. He was one of most prominent figures in Europe of his time, and in rank he compares only to St Seraphim of Sarov. The life of St Peter of Cetinje was deeply affected by the events taking place in Europe at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. In his lifetime he fought three wars.
The first of these three could be termed the inner war or the war against himself in order to completely dedicate himself to the great mystery of Jesus Christ, our Lord. The victory won in that war was the foundation for victories in the other two wars: the first of these two wars he fought with the aim to terminate the feud between the quarreling Montenegrins and Highland clans and tribes. The second of these two wars he fought against outer enemies – the Turks and Napoleon. Acting as the people's ethical as well as military leader, St Peter of Cetinje defeated his enemies and won his third war.
How can one justify, from the theological and philosophical point of view, the fact that an archbishop turned into a warrior? One could, perhaps, interpret the history of the Christian nations as the return to the Old Testament, while the New Testament can only be felt as hinted in human history. It seems that the New Testament was embodied only in those individuals who assumed the Image of Christ on the Cross, and thus became blessed by it. The acute resistance with which he fought evil does not seem to belong to historic man, but rather to meta-history. The battle against evil, which he fought, should be understood as the deepest yearning and historic need of man.
Key words: Cross, Inner Battle, Temptations of Evil, Revenge, Prophets, Christian History – Old Testament History, Victory of Eternal Good, Peace and Harmony
Hieromonk Joanikije (Micovic), St Peter's Seminary, Cetinje
THE EFFECT OF THE ICON IN HISTORY
This text is concerned with the spiritual meaning of the poster made by Veljo Stanisic for the liturgical bicentennial anniversary of the victory won by St Peter of Cetinje against the Turks in Battle of Martinic and Krusi*.
The meaning of the poster translated into words reads as follows: "Bicentennial Anniversary of the Victory won by St Peter of Cetinje" – Liturgy served by His Eminence Metropolitan Amfilohije. This inscription is placed in the upper section of the poster: in the illuminated sphere that encloses the liturgical symbols of the Cross and Icon. The Cross, with its salvific effect, incorporates the whole christened people, while the glorified person (image=icon) of St Peter hypostatically testifies and reveals the glory of the christened (crucified) people.
The lower sphere/section of the poster contains no inscription. This leads us to conclude that the contents of what it represents have not yet reached their real meaning and liturgical remembrance. The religious symbols of Islam and of Mahmud Pasha's skull are placed within a black frame. The message the author of the poster wants to convey is that Mahmud Pasha did not lose only his head, in the aforementioned Battle, but that he was, all his might included, doomed to eternal spiritual darkness outside of liturgical communion.
Key words: Salvific Effects of the Cross, Holy Warriors, Icon, Glorification, Mystique of Demonic Possession and Self-adoration, Inclusion and Exclusion from Liturgical Light, Christ
II. WAR AS EXPERIENCE
Dr. Radovan Karadzic, Pale
WAS THIS A TRUE WAR?
For our warrior there are no secrets: he understands his murderer together with all the shouting aimed at him from "all sides". He has always endured as much as it is possible. It is hard to conceive how much the people called "Bosnian Serbs" can endure and it is more than certain that in the whole world there is hardly another people that equals the Bosnian Serbs when it comes to endurance and patience. One should bear in mind that our warrior is the Bosnian Serb: for centuries he has treasured his spiritual values deeply within his inner self. Although being simple and meek, the Bosnian Serb was and is a nobleman and knight. He concealed his Serbian essence in order to preserve it. However, his enemies, sadly his neighbors, were not deceived by his pretence not to be openly true to his Serbianhood. In every war the enemy of the Serbian warrior was after his spiritual essence. Because the enemy of the Serbian man knew that his spirituality is inseparable from all physical aspects of his being – nothing Serbian was spared. The mercilessness with which this was carried out only equals that of Herod.
Our soldier remembers all those who plundered his village: for centuries he is aware of acute injustice. He recognizes their deeds and traces. For him, this war is not "the continuation of war by different means". Clauzewitz is not familiar with wars of this kind, nor does he speak of warriors like ours. However, our warrior does. He knows that this has been the hundredth time that his family, home, his present and past, have been the target which the enemy has decided to destroy.
I can not help but ask whether these events can rightly be named a "war"? Wars have their nature, their causes and their goals, their beginning and end, their Clauzewitz. This recent war has not been a war of the usual kind. The cause of this war was the mere existence of one nation. Are we to conclude that "casus belli" will remain justifiable as long as a people such as Bosnian Serbs exit.
Key words: Warrior, Return, Destruction of Village, Demolished Church, Neighbour-murderer, Interim Period, To live and Bear Witness, Casus Belli, Deleted Present and Past
Colonel Milovan Milutinovic, Banja Luka
WAR WITHOUT AN UNITED PROGRAM AND AIM
The basic aim of the author is to indicate the degree of complexity and multifariousness of the problems imposed on the politics and, particularly, the army of the Republic of Srpska during the attempt of constituting the Serbian State – on legitimate territories of the Serbian people. The author underlines those expectations which, according to his opinion, were insufficiently responded to by Serbian leaders, the Serbian Academy and other distinguished Serbs. The common Serbian national interest and program should have been determined and agreed to at the very beginning of the hostilities leading to war. Since such a program was missing, the Serbian subjects west of Drina, had to organize themselves independently, without any unified national aim. Due to that there was no basic orientation or leading idea that would aid the responsible subjects and structures to effectively protect the Serbian populace from new sufferings. The only positive exception, in this respect, was the Serbian Orthodox Church. Therefore, the author regards the following words of the Chief commander of the Army of the Republic of Srpska, general Ratko Mladic, as an insightful warning: "neither the army nor the people were adequately supported by the Serbian state – not by one of them, nor by Serbian politics, diplomacy even less. The simple reason is being the absence of an unified Serbian national program, aim or strategy. Since this was lamentably missing, I regard it also as a tragedy for Orthodoxy, because we neither have an Orthodox program nor unity amongst Orthodox countries."
Key words: Break-up of Yugoslavia, Absence of Unified National Program, the Moral of Vidovdan as Serbian Moral, the Role of the Serbian Orthodox Church, the Relation Between the Political and Military Authorities, Serbian State, Disunity of the Orthodox Oecumene
Tihomir Burzanovic, Podgorica
THE IDEA BEHIND THE EXTERMINATION OF SERBS IN HERZEGOVINA ON THEIR FAMILY PATRON SAINT'S DAY 50 YEARS AGO COMPARED WITH THE IDENTICAL SITUATION IN THE WAR OF 1991-1995.
The author decided to compare a certain number of cases of crime committed against the Serb population in Herzegovina in the Second World War with recent crimes committed on the day which those who were brutally murdered celebrated as their Family Patron Saint's Day. The author made it his task to carry out a detailed investigation of the identity papers, testimonies of witnesses and epic poetry in order to highlight both the victims and their murderers in his search for the causes and consequences of those crimes as they were reflected in the minds of the individual members of the community, as well as on the community as a whole.
The shots which were fired at the Icon Christ, or the Image of a Saint, are equal to those fired at an innocent man who is the Image of God. The killing of the theandrical iconical aspect of man – on his Patron Saint's Day – coincides with the triumph of his beastly, subhuman aspect. To replace the Heavenly Celebration with the demonic fratricidal orgy was, and still is, the goal that Lucifer, his servants and followers aim to achieve.
Key words: Family Patron Saint's Day, Genocide, Crime, ....... Festivities, Lucifer, Demonization, Fratricidal Celebrations, Icon-God's image, Animal Nature in Man
Mladen Šukalo, Philosophical faculty, Banja Luka
THE FISSURE OF REALITY, THE CONTINUATION
"The fissure of Reality, The Continuation" is an attempt on behalf of the author to prolong the intonation present in the text from which the above line is being quoted. It is in a somewhat peculiar way that the author tries to connect what really happened during this last war on the territories where it raged, with the manner in which it was presented in literature by various other authors.
The author of this text tries to integrate the above quotation into his own text. However, he repeats the quotation as little as he can and is inclined to describe the war as the destiny of people living in some of the parts that used to belong to the former Yugoslavia. The life of those people changed very little in the course of the centuries and it is probable that the situation will remain unchanged in the years to come.
And it is all about two photos. Two war photos.
Key words: the Severed Head, the Word, Reading, Quotation, Literature, the Victim, Fissure
Milutin Micovic, Niksic
ENTER AS INTO YOUR HOME / THE UNENDING BATTLE
The phenomena of war is an explosion of all-universal energies of human fallenness. The long-term "dead peace" prepares for war. This is why war appears as punishment and the ultimate test of existence. War commences and terminates by itself – the ideologues, acting subjects and victims are chosen by its idea. War is supported by the sanctity of sacrifice. In the depths of selfcognizance we all discover the vocation for being sacrificed and thus realized. Well, was it not true that war-leaders appealed to victims in order to induce their self-sacrificial surrender to idols?
Key words: Bone, Blood, Dream, God, Mud, Feastal Table, Day
III. WAR AS LIE
Bishop of Zahumlje and Herzegovina dr. Atanasije (Jevtic), Monastery of Tvrdos
A WAR WORSE THAN ANY OTHER WAR
War is the reality of our world and it has its origin in the Heavens. War began with Archangel Michael banishing Lucifer and his followers from the Heavens. The 1991-1995 war was the worst of all wars. This war was initiated by those dark powers that are regularly responsible for instigating wars. Christians were left with no other choice but to defend themselves.
War is evil when it means aggression against another country or another people. But war is unavoidable when it means defense. People in the Republic of Srpska had to wage war between 1991 and 1995 in order do defend themselves and demonstrated extreme courage.
However, the results of this war were wasted by President Milosevic of Serbia. He committed a number of treasons and the agony of treasonhood has not ended yet and is likely to spread to already crucified Kosovo and Metohia which we may expect to be surrendered too. War is more acceptable than peace when peace means our separation from God in which case such peace is a false peace. The real war and the false peace are the result of the policy of the UN, the European Community, the Security Council and the European Parliament. Without such policies of the West we would have created order in our Serbian lands two centuries ago because we were Europe before "Europe" and civilisation before "civilization". They were the main culprits for this war and they should to God for that.
Key words: Archangel Michael, Conquest, Defensive War, Exigency, Drama, Tragedy, Milosevic, Lucifer, False Peace
Dr. Mirko Zurovac, Philosophical faculty, Belgrade
"PRODUCTION OF LIES" IN THE SERVICE OF MILITARY IMPERIALISM, OR: WHAT REALLY HAPPENED TO US
This paper deals with the events that happened in the past few years on the territory of the former Yugoslavia.
The secessionist republics and the foreign countries that supported the secession succeeded in their goal to dismantle Yugoslavia at the the expense of the Serbian people. Because they were aware of the fact that their plans were not grounded in international law, they started a barrage of lies. By setting in motion the machinery for the "production of lies", as well as the distortion of truth and facts, they did not refrain from labeling the perpetrators of crime as victims of those who were cynically proclaimed as war criminals while actually being the real victims.
By resorting to lies and deception the protectors of the secessionist republics succeeded in isolating the Serbian people from the rest of the world. They manipulated the United Nations in such ways that the UN became a place where the procetors were able to legalize their political goals.
The author of this text presents a short review of the events which will make the readers better understand that the war brought upon the Serbian people was in fact a genocidal war and that it was sanctioned by the UN and carried out by NATO as the greatest military power of today.
The author concludes the article with the claim that the whole world is not against Serbs, although some people may be led to believe so because of the machinery used to fabricate facts. Therefore, it comes as an imperative for Serbs to find ways to reach those countries that have not proved themselves so inimical towards them and are thus willing to help the Serbian people to win the respect they deserve.
Key words: Lie, Deception, Cynicism, Secessionists, Fabrications, Yugoslav crisis, Media blockade, Western policy, Political primitivism, Western democracy, World diplomacy, "Higher politics", United Nations, Peace-forces, Safe zones, Sanctions, Violence, Embargo, NATO, Victim, Massacre, Crime, Retaliation, Genocide, War Crimes Tribunal, Mythical heroes, Heroic-tragic situation
Bogdan M. Lubardic, Theological faculty, Belgrade
GEOPOLITICAL ENCYCLOPEDISM OF "MICROSOFT"
The basic task of this article is the analysis of mass-media warfare against the recent Serbian state-constituting effort. The public at large is introduced to new software possibilities given by the "Microsoft Corporation", USA. More precisely, the focus is on Microsoft's encyclopaedia named "Encarta 1996", mediated and inscribed through the so-called CD-ROM system. If we decide to review the political geography of the Balkan's, then we might become aware of a biased strategy of erasing even the most elementary truths and rights of the Serbian people, both culturally and politically (Let us take just one from many examples: the only picture representing Serbia is a scene from Prizren depicting a muslim mosque and Turkish bridge, but why is this method of projecting the "minority" culture applied only to Serbia? Why is it not universalized? Why, by the same token, is there no photograph of an orthodox church in Croatia, or in Bosnia, or at least in Serbia, together and alongside with Islamic structures? As we well know, there are many legitimate monuments of Serbian culture in these parts of ex-Yugoslavia respectively.) The suggestive and tendentious composition and aims of the "Encarta" materials is another opportunity to ponder on several condensed mechanisms for inducing and perpetuating "serbophobic" attitudes and feelings.
This article also shifts from the level of critical analysis of "Encarta’s" political geography, to the level of synthesis which reveals the contours of a geopolitical concept projected through "Encarta" into global "cybernetic" spaces of communication. Moreover, the author points to a new moment in the totalitarian being of mass-media: namely, the complete convergence between the genre of political commentary ("updated" from minute to minute) and the "authoritative" genre of the encyclopedic article. "Encarta" might be seen as a fascinating simulation ("simulacrum") of mass media "enlightenment". Thus it becomes further exposed as a digital "info-bulletin" commensurate with the political and strategic thinking of the Pentagon and/or Washington. In his conclusion the author adds that the resistance to mass-media violence against the Serbs should not be reduced to "naming" this type of evil: insights into the strategies of lies should also be transferred into other, more effective, forms of national praxis, in culture equally as in politics.
Key words: Microsoft, "Encarta 1996", Balkans, War, Geopolitics, Encyclopedism, Mass-media deceit
Hierodeacon Jovan (Culibrk), St Peter's Seminary, Cetinje
If this war is "the worst of all possible wars", what is then the criterion by which we measure its evil? The unmistakable indication is given by the participance of "the liar, and the father of it" (John, 8:44). Therefore, the quantity and quality of lies injected into this war is a sound criterion for judgement. The Lie of this war is the product of that most perfect "factory" of lies – pop-culture.
The mega-concert LIVE AID (1985) gave birth to the planetary state. The participation of 2. billion people gave legitimacy to this state to govern the world according to the principles of "humanism". At that time it was Ethiopia, somewhat later Iraq, today it is Bosnia.
Pop-culture, in its inner structure, conveys a very potent antiorthodox energy. One of its key songs – "Sympathy for the Devil" – speaks about the regicide of Tzar Nicholas II. The peoples and republics of ex-Yugoslavia, interestingly, in this war exhibit behavior which is analogous to the behavior of local subcultural scenes formed in Yugoslavia during the 80's. The patterns of deployment of NATO troops in daytonian Bosnia confirm the idea that these "scenes" were formed according to preconceived, "oblique" strategies (Brian Eno). Thus, Ljubljana gravitated towards Berlin, Zagreb towards London, Belgrade towards New York.
Sarajevo appears as the symbol of the "destroyed" planetary city of the 90's. The survival of the Republic of Srpska signifies the inability of the planetary state to achieve its fiction by means of politics. The eyes of the West, in the center of which an anonymous Bosnian parish priest became cardinal over night, are facing towards Rome: the creator of the planetary Church.
Today we hate lies in proportion to the vicinity of death that they brought upon us.
Key words: Lie/Fiction, Pop-culture, Planetary City, LIVE AID, Sarajevo, Purification through Fire, Hatred of Lies, Life
IV ETHICS, RIGHT AND WAR
Dr. Jovan Babic, Philosophical faculty, Belgrade
DOES THE CONCEPT OF WAR CRIME REST ON A MISTAKE?
There are three classes of events that may be subsumed under the heading "crimes of war" – the crime against peace, war crimes as violations of the laws or customs of war, and crimes against humanity. Of those only the first, unlike the other two classes of crimes, have characteristics that might qualify them as genuine war crimes. The latter two classes of crimes are such that the characterization "of war" adds nothing to their meaning. Attributions of crimes against peace, however, are possible only for the defeated side in the war. For victory obliterates the guilt for starting the war. Treating the crime against peace as a bona fide war crime (in the legea sense) leads to the following two absurd consequences. First, if victory absolves one from moral and legal responsibility for starting the war, then the defeat would have to be criminal in nature. In such a case mounting an (unsuccessful) defense would also qualify as a criminal act. This is, however, in direct conflict with the well founded right to defense, which is in its turn morally justified through universalization. This conflict could be resolved only if there was a right to prosecute the defeated aggressors but not the defeated defenders. Second, the war must be defined as a practice in which victory is not predetermined. Thus, the adoption of this practice presupposes the recognition that the victor is always right. Consequently, the right to victory can not exist. In order for one to be held responsible for starting the war one must be defeated. But if we wanted to raise charges for war crimes independently of the outcome of war, one party would have to be granted the right to victory, and this represents the second absurd consequence. All this implies that persecution for crimes against peace is in place only in one case – if it happens that the aggressor is defeated. In all other cases— defeat of the defenders or victory of either side – there is no room for raising charges against war crimes. Consequently, setting up courts and conducting trials is merely a political, but not legal procedure.
The notion of a right to victory is particularly paradoxical. The existence of such a right would mean that the motivation for starting and winning wars could come from a presumption that one possesses such a right, or even on the basis of some promises coming from an authority presumed powerful enough to secure that such "rights" be actualized. However, such an authority can not legitimately exist, for it would have been in its power to announce who has the right to victory and thus prevent the war. Morally speaking, such an announcement would then become obligatory. Waging war becomes morally and rationally unacceptable in the case when it is known in advance who is the victor, instead of war in its place we would have had some sort of police raid. But in that case the right to defense is in no better position than a right to invade or a right to rebel – each of such rights would equally depend on something else: i.e. on the result-oriented "right to victory" and whatever might go with it (including the persecution of the defeated side under pretense of legality).
Key words: War, War crimes, Aggression, Defeat, Status of Victory, Moral Rightness vs. Political suitability, Right to Defense.
Boris B. Brajovic, Philosophical faculty, Niksic
WAR AS POLITICAL ETHICS
The difference in the degree of the reality of freedom expressed, on the one hand, in times of peace enabling the functioning of laws, which in fact means that the state has the full authority to apply laws, and, on the other hand, in the times of war, which is incorporated in the very substance of the social system – this difference is manifested in the violation of the predetermined harmony reigning between the permitted and sanctioned poles of one and the same freedom.
In that narrow space of institutionalized distance moral action becomes possible as the free expression of man. It is only in war, taken as programmed violence, that the moral role of freedom becomes dismissed. Amidst the turbulence of war phenomena it is not moral that is abandoned, but it is moral itself which betrays and, as a ballast, is jettisoned in immediate proximity of death.
Key words: Morale, Freedom, Law, State, Guilt, Justice
Petar Bojanic, Belgrade
TWO SIDES OF ONE MEDAL, BUT...
La correspodance qui vient recemment d'etre publiee, grace au professeur Piet Tommisen, rend naturellement possible de parler et comprendre la relation la difference ou la proximite de ces deux juristes europeens. Leur amor commun envers Thomas Hobbes, l'amabilite dont avait fait preuve Schmit ce juriste italien inconnu en 1937 lorsque Bobbio le visita, le desir de Schmitt d'avoir de nouveaux contacts apres 1947 et son intarrissable besoin de livres somme consequences du domage de la confisquation de sa biblioteque par les allies, l'action tres contenue et rare de Bobbio de s'appuyer dans le cadre de ses travaux sur les idees d'un juriste allemand, tout cela ne serait pas suffisant pour que leur nom soient dans le titre d'une etude serieuse. Neanmoins, sa correspodance advenue, et avant tout sa corespondance publiee, du vivant d'un de ses acteurs, offre la possibilite d'une recherche et d'une reflextion sur les traces d'une rancontre qui semble charmante vu de l'exterieur et qui semble tres reussie.
Key words: Friendship, Encounter in 1937., Ideal Theory of Law, Christian Tradditionalism, Missing/Surplus, Distancing, Governing the Past
V SOUL AND WAR
Dr. Bosko V. Popovic, Belgrade
PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF WAR
The attempts of psychologists to give their contribution to an antiwar campaign should be viewed in the light of their repeated turning to James's study "Moral Equivalents of War" (1910).
Regardless of their educational background or such "tools" as psychoanalytic, behaviouristic or other, they keep insisting on a certain number of identical basic ideas. They advocate an intellectual bartering of "moral substitutes" ("equivalents of war") with "god Mars" and "his virtues". They insist on abandoning "the romanticism of war" and its "appeal" for the sake of some, at first glance, equally valuable merchandize which are anything but horrible. These commodities are expected to assume the same roles (functions), but in a peaceful way! These thinkers and their like, claim for their own ideas that these are sheer utopia – "Global Government", "Campaign Against Nature", "Heroic Struggle of Man against the Universe" etc. Thus, it would seem that Nature itself is the origin of evil and Man a helpless victim of certain powers. However, we can not help noticing that such thinkers overlook many things when they discuss Man as Person. Firstly, they focus their attention on one of man's parts (no matter if of ultimate or evilish nature) disregarding the fact that one part can not represent the whole. Therefore, we see the perpetuation of the Mistake of fragmenting the Zïíôáíïí Xïëïí. This is so because of the inconsiderate or malevolent process of forgetting that he is created according to the Image of the most perfect wholeness – according to the Image of the Creator: the Image of the threehypostatical God.
Key words: the Mistake of fragmenting, Universal Man, Threehypostatical God
Dr. Jovan Miric, Philosophical faculty, Belgrade
THE WARS IN THE KINGDOM ON EARTH
This article represents an attempted psychological interpretation of the answer given to the question of causes of war, as it was posed by the cycle of old Serbian folkloric poetry. The author's main thesis contends that the chief cause of war emanates from the Kingdom of Earth, understood as a certain ethical conception representing an immediate reflection of the biological side of human nature: namely, the striving towards supremacy. Furtherstill, the Kingdom of God should be understood as the opposite ethical conception, which demands the voluntary self-limitation of the tendency towards supremacy – through its subsumption under universal moral values.
In addition, this article also claims that the historical development of religious systems is analogous to ontogenetic development.
Key words: War, Kingdom of Heaven and Kingdom of Earth, Ethics, Development, Religious systems, the Kosovo Poems
VI. PEOPLE AND WAR
Predrag Lazarevic, Banja Luka
SERBS AND WAR
The author of this article is concerned with the relationship between Serbian spirituality and its attitude towards war in the course of history. Despite the stereotype image of the Serbs as a people who are fond of wars and of waging wars, the truth is that only Tzar Dusan, their leader, imposed a conquering war-campaign. But even he abandoned this conquest, failing to capture Constantinople.
The Serbian state and Church were founded by Stefan Nemanya and his son St Sava. Both institutions gave foundations for lawfulness in every area of life. The turning point in the history of Serbs was the Battle of Kosovo, which is associated with the decision of tzar Lazar to choose the Kingdom of Heaven. Tzar Lazar's willingness to sacrifice himself and his soldiers in the course of time became the standard for Serbian patriotism. The author illustrates this viewpoint by referring to the literature of Njegos and Rakic.
However, it is interesting to note that revenge, as a literary motif, for the first time appeared in the so-called partizan literature.
Both in 1918 and in 1945 the Serbs were trapped by the idea of "yugoslaviahood". This concept was launched to prevent the forming of an Orthodox Piemont on the Balkans. However, in 1991, the Serbs refused to be trapped again, as bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic indicated. Lamentably, even this time the Serbian idea was not fulfilled because the subjects responsible for official Serbian politics were not ready to defeat those factors responsible for genocide against the Serbs in both World wars. Once again the great powers managed to manipulate the Serbs and this entailed falling short of the full realization of their national interests and goals.
The lack of wisdom exhibited by Serbian political practice can be seen as reflected in the approach to war: the traditional readiness to lay one's life for one's country can be evaluated as wise when the people may procure meta-historical benefit.
The failure to accomplish the set goals of the war of 1991-1996 is the result of manipulating with both: heroic readiness for sacrifice and meta-historical promises.
Key words: St Sava's Way, Lawfulness, Lazar's Covenant on Kosovo, Njegos, "Allies"/Manipulation, Nedic, Sacrifice
Rados Mladenovic, Philosophical Faculty, Niksic
NATIONALISM AND WAR
There are three types of concept concerning the determination of the national: the Romanic, Germanic and Slavic. The Romanic concept understands the nation as an everyday plebiscite. According to the Germanic concept it is blood and soil that are chiefly responsible for one’s national identity. Finally, the Slavic national concept envisages the nation as being linked with messianic ideas and salvation. "If the best of all worlds demands the tears of a child, then I refuse to live in such a world", Dostoyevski used to say.
Hegel’s claim the historical process comes to an end in the Germanic context gave birth to the socialist idea in two of its aspects: Hitler’s national socialism, on one hand, and Marxist international socialism on the other. Both of these facets are totalitarian and criminal, as is the underlying idea.
Romano-Germanic peoples proclaim their culture to be universally human and their civilization as the ideal for mankind. What actually happens is the projection of ethnical chauvinism as cosmopolitanism.
The same goes for democracy. There is no planetary model of democracy and all democracies known to exist in the world are first and foremost national democracies.
Key words: Nation, Blood and Soil, Tears of a Child, National Socialism, International-Socialism, Ethnic Chauvinism as Cosmopolitanism, Democracy, National Democracy
Matej Arsenijevic, Belgrade
EASTERN ORTHODOXY AND WAR
The present historical and spiritual-political situation of Orthodoxy (military, geopolitical, economical and cultural challenges facing the Orthodox Oecumene in general – Balkans, Russia, Greece, Cyprus) and of the Serbian orthodox people (the five-year war in western Serbian lands, anti-fatherland "Dayton accord", "post-daytonian" situation of Serbian history) – is the theme which necessarily determines the basic tone and methodology of this theological-political essay about war. Since we, as the Orthodox, find ourselves in such a historical situation, we have no right to dissect our theme – Orthodoxy and War – in a cold, "cabinet" fashion. For this is not an abstract question – totally detached from our real life and eternal destiny. The theological-political mind of Eastern orthodoxy – and with us orthodox Serbs it is incarnated as the mind of St Sava – is always the mind of creative clashes with the antinomies of history, combatant (critical-polemical) mind of dynamic cognition, rethinking and answering the challenges of historical questions and problems: it is the mind fearless discernment of theo-political spirits of history and eschatological implications of all historical phenomena and actions.
For these reasons, in thematizing the question of the Orthodox understanding of war, for our departure-point we do not embrace some universal Orthodox "theory of war" (in fact, it is not existent in form of system), but we propose to expose an outline of the historical and geo-political crisis situation in which Orthodoxy, at the end of the 20th century, finds itself: within a hostile Western civilization having lost its former organic historical world and real historical power.
Key words: War, History, Justice, Struggle, Church, Peace, and Eschaton
VII. UNIVERSE AND WAR
Dr. Savo Lausevic, Philosophical Faculty, Niksic
WAR – THE BASIC PHENOMENA AND METAPHOR OF HUMAN EXPERIENCE
This essay about war examines, on the personal and collective level, the inner spiritual and psychological experience of this basic phenomenon of human experience.
Firstly, war is thematized as an explosion of great force which can not be absorbed and thus – through its destructive energy – appears as directed at annihilation of form.
War and anti-war ideologies do not touch the essence of war and this is why they can be assessed at the same level. For this reason pacifism can be proved to be an ideology of war.
The right of war is the prerogative of the sovereignty of one state. International law can not control war because it does not posses the necessary sovereignty. It is thus, furtherstill, open to manipulation as quasi-law. Since war pierces the essence of life and transports into ultimate existential situations, it serves as the foundation for semantically positing the archetype and metaphor of struggle which may be applied to regions of human existence which are not included in war in the strict sense.
Key words: War, Myth, History, Death, Right/Law, Metaphor, Force
Presbyter Dragan Stanisic, St Peter's Seminary, Cetinje
THE OMNIPOTENT POETRY OF THE CREATOR
In the second poem of "Luca Mikrokozma" (The Ray of the Microcosm) the guardian angel points at a beautiful crystal dome, not unlike the tabernacle of Moses, fulfilled with the glory of God. Through the rebellion of Satan the wonderful dome is sacrileged: the war of angels and demons in Heaven commences and subsequently comes to end in Satan's defeat.
However, for Adam, the war continues on Earth. Because he is tied to Satan, he shall dwell in such surroundings which shall not give him complete relieve from injustice. The affirmation and killing destructiveness of this evil was thoroughly felt by Njegos in his time – in his soul and the soul of his people.
Justice, dignity, freedom, charity, chivalry, and other virtues, shall shine in the higher spiritual sphere where they find their primordial origin. This is even more the case if these virtues do not find adequate satisfaction here on Earth.
The heavenly tabernacle is not merely an "aesthetic of the heavens", for it is inscribed into the very nucleus of the human being. This is why God, in the final singing of "Luca", descends to Earth in order to sanctify this tabernacle.
Key words: Tabernacle, Angels, Njegos, Eternity, Rebellion, Satan, War, Evil, the Advent of Christ, the Tender Humble Teacher
Kosto Ninkovic, Niksic
PHILOSOPHY OF WAR – THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE UNIVERSE
Wars can be seen as a historical necessity which divides time into long or brief epochs of one nation or civilization. After such organic transformations the present reality changes its image and the potential of its original universal lifehood. If and when it is returned into the dignity of God's creation, it possesses a future which will last through infinity if man does not spend or, more precisely, trample beneath his feet the novelty which he procured for himself in his crucified existence. Military thought, as rational conscience of the aforementioned war organism, exists as the focal point of all aspects of human knowledge. Under this veil the disguised transformators of the national intellect of every state are continuously at work. However, they fail to acknowledge the fact that through technical means one can not direct or prevent universal processes ("intentions") when the time of their ripeness comes into being.
Key words: Short and Long Epochs, the Dignity of God's Creation, the National Intellect of Each State, Extinct Language, Interlocutor