Dejan Ćirić

Spells, Herbs and Surgery: Medical Care in the Balkan Provincial Town in the 19th Century

Attitude toward our own, ore the other’s body always has been reflection of the cultural heritage through the centuries, result of long lasting behaviors, fruit of climate and geographical circumstances, but in the same time and almost in the equal measure, it has been consequence of the economic situation and opportunity for successful using of cultural influences and surround nature. Town of Pirot (South Eastern Serbia), several small towns in the region and many villages were under the great and constant influence in every way and in big measure because of their geographical location on the main road in South Eastern Europe. These influences were not only concerning material culture, they have very deep roots in the mental structure of the local population and therefore in the attitude to physical side of their existence.

Period 1800-1914 in the region along the river Nisava is interesting for research, on the first place, because of big changes in the politics, economy and of course in every day life of the local population. Even during the first readings of the official governmental documents, memoirs, journey accounts, journals and newspapers and short notes on the margins from old manuscripts and printed books we could see slow changes of cultural standards which were passing from Oriental to Central and Western European models throughout the last decades of 19th century.

Folk medicine in Pirot County was predominant as in other Balkan regions before national revival on the beginning of 19th century. What is more, some elements were significant even during first decades in the 20th century. The art of healing was usually transferring on the oral manor and it was very often on the edge between spellings and old herb therapy. However, there were written medical knowledge. The oldest medical manuscript in the Pirot County is The Pirot Lekarusa (Pirot Healing Manual) created on the end of 18th century[1].

This small manuscript (17x10 cm) is one of the most important in the Pirot Museum collection. This book is interesting source of medical knowledge in the region and in the same time for local dialect research. The Manuscript has been protecting by brown leather and soft cardboard. It consists 64 no paginated sheets amongst almost a half are damaged on the bottom. Book has two parts: first was written on the end of 18th century, second on the beginning of 19th century. On the beginning The Pirot Lekarusa was the property of Hadzi Pavle, Greek who moved from Constantinople to Pirot. First part of this short medical manual content directions for drug making in Serbian tradition, but in the second part there are Turkish folk medicine instructions[2].

Even during initial readings we could see obvious those authors of The Lekarusa didn’t have wide medical knowledge and, what is more, their terminology is very unclear and changeable what were in the accordance with time, place and cultural circumstances. Terms for diseases and drags are very often folk’s and descriptive with using many Greeks and Turkish words.

Recipes are not systematically arranged in the frame of certain groups, so we couldn’t notice system ore order established through creating of manuscript. Drags recipes for same ore similar diseases are situated sometimes on two ore tree places in the Manual and often by using very different substances and diverse procedures. We cannot find term drag ore healing because authors always use several Turkish words ore some descriptive phrases[3]. It is very hard to be completely shore what means descriptive phrases like: when hart are aching, when navel are running, for thundering ears, for child when his ball is falling, when breasts are hurting, when had are puffing up, when hart puffing up. In any case, that was a way to describe certain medical problems which were not call with specific title because medical knowledge was very simple and small in that time.

For instance, we can find different recipes for drag for eye pain on the beginning and on the end of the Manual, for headache there are two identical recipes. For throat pain Manual suggests, for contemporary circumstances, very strange hilling procedure: ketch the frog, cut it along the body, put some yellow sugar and ammoniac-chloride and put it on the throat for 24 hours. Against toothache manuscript suggests burned deer horn powder and burned onion seeds[4]. Amongst many interesting recipes there are simple ones: against pain in the back[5], against breast pain[6] and ears pain[7]. Recipes for drags against hi temperature are situated on tree pages and most interesting suggests compress on the feet made of yogurt, rakia (Serbian brandy) and garlic[8]

There are special remedies for eye and mouth infections and gum bleeding[9]. In The Pirot Lekarusa there are recipes for rose jam what is even nowadays well known drag and sweet for mouth pain in the Pirot region[10]. Wide rang of infection diseases was constant threat, so there are direction for making two drags against syphilis[11]. Folk doctors in the 19th century could have use drags for yellow fever, rabies and smallpox[12], scarlet fever, deafness, crusts, suffocation, vomit, diarrhea and night urinate[13].

In the Manual there are recipes for plenty of drags, emulsions, herb teas and directions for healing, so against hairless authors suggests two ways. One of them says that good washed head should be smeared with smashed blackberry lives[14]. There are also several recipes for burns, frostbites and remedy for every kind of injury[15].

Folk medicine in Pirot region was mach wider than what we can learn on the Lekarusa`s pages, its evidences we could find in ethnographic sources ore in other written documents, although they are rear and very short. For example, in the Psalm Book of the village teacher, Mane Pesic there is handwriting note: short direction about hilling epilepsy[16]. Apart of so call hechim (Turkish ward for doctor) who were recognized as skilful in medical problems in the town, in surround villages there are many various healers, magicians and spell makers. Local people unusually often have visited monasteries, churches, various cult places such as water sources, trees, cliffs and cemeteries. According to wide disseminated public belief there was a water source in the certain cave near town of Trn (nowadays Bulgaria) which heals aye illness, snake poison and madness. Amongst people who were looking for health in that water were many Pirot inhabitants[17].

Fake medicine was not extraordinary phenomena in Pirot and particularly for surround villages even during first decades in 20th century, so the fact that certain pilgrim woman were well known in the town by healing during 1880es is quite accepted. According to her story, she has been in Jerusalem and brought miraculous icons, parts of saint’s bodies and diverse amulets and miraculous water from some spring in the Holy Lend. In here house she built some kind of chapel and healed many people. All of her healing usually consisted of little powder form saint’s body, prayers, spells and recommended abstain. This woman has been punished several times during 1870es, but just because of that reason she became more respectable person amongst uneducated people as a victim. All of her substances and equipment were sanded by local doctor, Yan Sienkiewicz to Belgrade as evidence of low level of medical culture in 1883[18].

In that time there was a barber who wrote on his workshop window that he, apart of his main craft do the surgery. He also did his job in the near villages. The barber tried to cure scrofulous to twenty year old boy, but it provoked infection and tree months hard real healing. No matter of fact to long lasting unconfident attitude of local Orthodox Christian population toward Muslim inhabitants, Pirot citizens were very often looking for help to certain local Muslim priest, call Sheriff. According to accounts he protected children from spells and heart attack and pulled out tithes with his hands. Sheriff was so popular that people called much more him than educated doctor[19].

Because of special geographic location in the center of the Balkan on the important road in the middle between two significant cities Nis and Sofia, Pirot was very often victim of infected diseases. Many armies which penetrated from the Orient into heart of the Europe and vice versa, in addition to material uncertainly brought various illnesses. Lots of merchants, who brought different goods from the Levant to Danube region, cared in their bags smallpox, plague and the other infections through the centuries. Little bit smaller repercussions brought diplomats, messengers and adventurers. In the period 1700-1850 in many Balkan regions there were 126 years with plague what is significant fact as illustration of constant threat to the local population. Many of these infections were bordered on the small regions and villages, but several looked like as mass destructions[20].

Information about first plague epidemic in Pirot during 19th century is situated in Russian book Apostle at the church at village Strelac. In this short note we can learn that disease came in the town in 1815 with result of almost 8000 dead. Infection started in 1813 and spread from Sofia direction[21]. The second plague infection in Pirot started in 1838.

Plague emerged firstly in 1834 in Alexandria and with help of sailors spread to Constantinople. Next year disease passed in Greek towns: Thessalonica, Kavala and Drama. Carried by the people who traveled very often, illness spread on the north to the Danube and in direction to the west through Pirot to Nis.[22]

Such events naturally emerged government of the Serbian Principality to provide strong protection measures. Prince Milosh decided to take much stronger protection at the several border passes in December 1836, so quarantine was lasted ten days. In the same time some Bulgarian merchants from Sofia brought news about plague in the region between Plovdiv and their town[23].

However, Turkish Governor in Sofia who provided protection measures didn’t succeed and so disease spread to Pirot in March 1837. In the beginning there were only several isolated victims. Some of the citizens were talking that vampires killed the people, but shortly after that they saw real deadly effects of the plague[24].

Infection provoked big confusion and fear, so many town inhabitants moved to villages in order to survive. But disease spread in the villages. The consequence of that we can see at village graveyards in Trnjani and Krupac as tombstones with five ore six names[25]. One of those who were looking for safety in Serbian Principality was the son of the famous Pirot citizen, Kostadin Filipovic. Many people were stopped at the border and return back home. Only small number of merchants, solders, messengers and state officials passed to Serbia[26].

During the summer disease spread on the fifteen villages in the Pirot region. In the town more than fifty people were dying every day. Very soon, infection appeared in the small town Bela Palanka around twenty five kilometers to the west[27]. During tree months dead around 15%[28] of the population what was on the first place consequence of low level of medical knowledge. Unclean people and their homes were main reason for very fast spread of the disease and lots of victims. Local population had custom to exchange the clothes and footwear, there were merchants, usually Jewish who traded clothes made of wool and leather, so that was perfect condition for spread the infections. On addition to this, Turkish population had their own attitude toward mortal disease: they taught deadly illness was a destiny sanded by Gad and one of 366 doors to Haven, although there were many of them who tried to escape and saved themselves[29].

Apart from big fear and confusion people were truing to protect by closing families in the homes, burning deed’s clothes and bodies, abandoning old houses and even moving entire villages. Many communities were looking for safety in the churches and priests[30]. Appearance of the tuberculosis in Pirot wasn’t exception, it could be said that people were living with this disease as everyday fact and suffered entire life and through several family generations.

Not long after liberation of Pirot in December 1877 government started to realize very hard task to introduce some urgent measures in the field of medical care. In that time appeared first county and municipal doctors who noticed most important facts about diseases and mortal cases. According to account in 1883 even 25% of mortal cases were because of tuberculosis what is dabble than typhus victims, ore five time more than deadly cases because of diphtheria. This is one of the proofs of very low level of hygiene habits of the local population[31]. According to account in 1903 it was much batter situation because there were 13 people ill of tuberculosis, but only one dead, although we can be sure there were more cases than annotations[32].

Stories about many sufferers could be important and useful for understanding the health circumstances in Pirot. Teacher of Serbian language and literature in the Pirot Gymnasium, Sima Popovic is a special case. He was working in Skopje and Prisren (in that time Turkish Empire), but because of problems wit authorities he was in the prison and got tuberculosis. In July 1900 he asked for and got absence from the job in order to heal, although he wasn’t working for two semesters previous year for the same reason. Next year, Sima Popovic was looking for absence again to Ministry of Education[33]. There were several more teachers who were ill and out of their job for awhile[34]. In addition to this because of very bed living conditions of the children who lived in the school building in the village of Sopot sixteen of them in 1882 got tuberculosis. Ministry of Education was informed about this and school was closed for short time. County doctor suggested the same measures concerning sick schoolchildren in another two villages[35].

Terrible hygiene conditions, very bad food leaded to weak and sensible body liable to various diseases. According to Dr. Sienkievicz`s medical account it is possible to create general picture of the health situation in Pirot. During 1883 there were 25% dead cases provoked by infected diseases: typhus, scarlet fiver, diphtheria and dysentery. Every shape of fivers and its repercussions participated with 32% of all mortal cases. It is interesting that Dr. Sienkievicz noticed marasmus as mortal cause in 4.51% and what is fascinating: more than 50% of all mortal cases were children up to year[36].

In order to better comprehend this facts it should be compared with developed communities and states. Fore example, in the USA up to five year old children mortality was 20% on the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century. Main mortal causes were infected disease (mainly diphtheria and smallpox) as in Pirot[37].

As more effective measure in smallpox healing doctors recommended vaccination, so priest, Dimitrije Cvetkovic in January 1881 ordered that all clergymen must to teach local population about significance and positive effects of vaccination. Order was placed at all churches in the region[38]. Smallpox healing was well known in the Pirot decades before, but it wasn’t systematic. The evidence of that we can read at the Pirot Lekarusa[39]. During the years this measure showed positive effects and became obligation, so 3119 children in County were vaccinated in 1903[40]. Similar measures were provided by many European states during 19th century, so in the beginning it became some kind of national prestige[41].

Even general improving of life conditions and better medical treatment didn’t help during The Balkan War in 1913. Hard war situation caused typhus epidemic in 1913 no matter of fact that local authority introduced measures and bishop of Nis called on prayers and additional sermons[42].

Pirot had big problems in the fight against syphilis because citizens and village population were so much infected on the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century that doctors thought disease is endemic. Many of them were shore that infection came to town because of many season workers who return from Walachia, Bulgaria and Constantinople. Dr. Sienkievicz didn’t prove that with evidences, but he suggested, as the better measure, establishing several quarantines at the border passes and fast transportation infected persons to Pirot Hospital. This measure were justified by the facts that annually 8000-10000 men in the region from 12 to 40 year old go to season work and many 17 to 20 year old girls come to hospital wit hi level of syphilis. Twenty year later (1903) County Doctor Grujic in his annual account said that local authority give special money for fight against venereal diseases[43].

During the time of Turkish reign there were several doctors in the town of Greek, Turkish and Serbian origin, but most popular was George, the Greek who worked in the middle of 19th century[44]. Well known doctor in the second part of 19th century was Hechim Tana Popkrstic. He was born in Pirot where his father prepared him for priesthood because that was family tradition, but Popkrstic learned art of healing from the Turkish military doctor.

Apart of wide disseminated folk remedies and Pirot Lekarusa citizens could have opportunity to get drags at the professional pharmacist during Turkish reign. Mihail Andjelkovic opened his pharmacy in 1867 after two years study in Constantinople on French. Andjelkovic usually ordered drags and various substances from Belgrade and collaborated with Serbian Army doctors during liberation 1876-1878. In several letters to Government he mentioned these facts during procedure of obtain of pharmacist certificate in order to convinced Ministry that he has priority. But he didn’t fulfill all the requests and closed his shop[45]. New pharmacist became Franc Suricek of Check origin from Austro-Hungary in 1880[46].

First academic educated doctors came to Pirot after liberation in December1877. First of them had Polish origin from Galicia nephew of significant Polish writer Henrich Sienkievicz, Yanko Sienkievicz. He became Pirot County Doctor when he was 32 year old on February 19th 1879. He graduated medicine at University of Vienna in 1875 and spoke Serbian, German, Polish and Russian. He participated as military doctor in liberation of South Serbia and showed loyalty to his new homeland[47]. With very modest equipments and staff he did his job not only in the town but in the very fare and hard reachable villages. During all of his short journeys in the region he used only famous white hors unlike physicians in England during the same period that usually used different kinds of carriages what, in the same time, was status symbol[48]. Dr. Sienkievicz`s great achievement was founding of County Hospital in 1881[49]. He marred to Pirot citizen and stayed in the town to the end of his life in 1904[50]. In 1883 with Dr. Sienkievicz in County worked only another doctor, a veterinarian and not so mach skilled midwife[51].

First vet doctor in Pirot was Radomir Arnautovic Serb from Fogaros in Transylvania (Austro-Hungary). After Gymnasium in Kronstat he studied vet medicine at University of Vienna and University of Budapest. Soon after graduation he joined Serbian Army as military doctor in 1876. With official certificate he became first Pirot County Vet Doctor when he was 28 year old in May 1881. Arnautovic wasn’t exception concerning education; apart of his mother thong he spoke German, Rumanian and Hungarian[52].

As an assistant to doctors in County Hospital came Dr. Abraham Mandelbaum, the Jewish from Constantinople in 1881. Mandelbaum graduated medicine at the Munich University and spoke Serbian, German, French and Russian.[53]

With official governmental permission Dr. Jovan Valenta became County Doctor in October 1882. Czech by origin he was born in Prague in 1826 where he graduated philosophy and medicine. He got doctorate in surgery and MA in the field of obstetrics. On the beginning he was working in his native town, but he moved to Serbia in 1852 and worked in several small towns. He was teacher in Belgrade Gymnasium and one of the founders of Serbian Medical Society in 1872[54]. Dr. Valneta did first surgery in Pirot in November 1st 1883[55] and stayed in the town until retirement 1886 after he moved to Belgrade and died next year[56].

On the beginning of 20th century the number of medical staff increased. Sinekievicz became pensioner in 1903, but he continued as private doctor and as new County Doctor introduced Mladen Grujic. During follows years there were several doctors of Serbian origin, but Dimitrije Kalijadis, the Greak and Samuel Poper, the Jewish. During that period there were two pharmacies in the town managed by Uros Volic, the Serb and Karlo Skacel from Poland. Apart from staff in the County Hospital: tree sick attendants and a clerk there were also two midwifes[57].

According to available sources it is hard to learn where hospitals were before middle of 19th century. First rooms for healing purposes in that time rented George the Greek on the second floor of the Ignjatovic`s family house. That was one of the prettiest and biggest houses in the town built in 1854[58]. The others doctors probably healed in their own houses ore at the patient houses. During liberation 1877-1878 apart of former Turkish Military Hospital and schools, they used private houses because of many injured solders[59]. During short Serbian-Bulgarian war in 1885 according to priest Djordje Ignjatovic, who was the supervisor and coordinator of all medical care, in the town there were twelve hospitals[60].

First pharmacy situated on the same left river bank next to Golemi Most (Big Bridge) and consisted of two rooms: shop and storage room without all necessary equipment and with only 1/3 important drags which authorities requested and not correct storage conditions for danger poison substances[61]. Unlike Andjelkovic, pharmacist Suricek in the shop across the street had all necessary drags, many additional instruments and even well equipped laboratory with various materials, so governmental commission for medical care and drags gave him work permission[62].

One of the biggest long lasting problems for local authority on the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century was new County Hospital building. The old Hospital building from, so cold Turkish times was in very bad conditions, so even basic requests were not fulfilled. Building had only 133 square meters and two floors. On the ground floor there were office, patient room, small lobby two storage rooms and toilet. On the second floor there were fore very small rooms where were possible to put only sixteen beds[63]. It was obvious that town must build new Hospital because old one was in so bad condition that every reconstruction would be losing the money. Commission consisted of County Chairman, County Doctor, County Engineer and two Pirot Community officials decided to build new County Hospital[64].

Systematic primary and secondary education after liberation in 1877 gave first positive results in the last decade of 19th century. There were children with adequate knowledge to continue education at any foreign university with financial help provided by the state and also by the municipality. First was Sima Petrovic. He born in 1875 studied medicine in Graz and Vienna. After the First World War he was one of the members of Serbian mission at Versailles Peace Conference were he negotiated about veterans issues[65]. After Petrovic there were several young Pirot cituzens who studied medicine at Graz, Vienna, Kiev and Moscow during the first decade of 20th century. One of them was Nadezda Stanojevic, born in 1886, first girl from Pirot who studied medicine, as her brother Vladimir. She becomes famous as author of the first Serbian textbook in pediatrics[66].

In close interconnection with health always has been hygiene. Perception of its importance has been gradually increasing in all social classes through the 19th century because of obvious positive effects on preventing infection diseases. Description of the town and village houses from the first half and the end of 19th century of the average inhabitants in the County showed very bad hygienic conditions what was accepted situation and usual way of life. The best information about this issue we can find in the papers of village teacher Vladimir Nikolic who collected ethnographic facts amongst the oldest inhabitants and Gymnasium biology teacher, Lujo Adamic who was traveling and researching through the Stara Mountain. He had interesting experience with local peasants and wrote short and useful account about the journey.

The majority of the houses in the mountain villages were built of bad material (stone, wood, mud) with usually only one ore two dark rooms and small window covered with paper. There wasn’t ventilation and all family members were sleeping in the same room, but in the town it was different. Old and wetly town families usually had houses with several rooms and cline water for drinking, washing and bathing[67].

Even in other region in Serbia situation wasn’t much better. Fore example, in the central region of Kragujevac village children were bathing only in the rivers and only on the feasts, but older people were not bathing through the years. They sleep in the same clots as they work hard in the fields and with livestock and change it one time in a week. Consequences of such behaviors were infected diseases, different kinds of fever, respiratory diseases, various digestive problems and syphilis[68].

In Dr. Sienkievicz`s account for 1883 we learn in that time there were not public baths, although in the previous period (until 1878) there were several Turkish baths. According to Dr. Sienkievicz town people didn’t have habit to swim and wash in the river. During the recruiting procedure he saw that many boys didn’t bath for two ore tree years[69]. Public places such as restaurants, coffees and hostels were usually dirty and full of various insects, so the local administration provided measures of strict health control. There was prostitution in the town in the last decades of the 19th century what was hard to control. In 1883 there was special place for such girls in the same time coffee shop. However, there were women who work as prostitute in their own homes and constantly were come on medical inspection[70].

Since all the peasants and many of town inhabitants worked on the land and with cattle as additional occupation their health condition depended of cattle health. In the period of Turkish reign there were vet doctors, but the blacksmiths carried of some livestock medical problems[71].

In order to comprehend place of Pirot as small community in Europe and better understand health conditions before and after liberation it would be useful to make comparison with other small towns ore regions. Unlike Pirot where precise and constant accounts about health situation we can find only after 1878, in small communities in Sweden, as Linkoping it was standard after 1749 and in Denmark after 1829[72]. On the beginning accounts wrote local priests and after 1860 it was task of local doctors. But even in the Sweden there were similar problems as in the Balkans[73].

Undoubtedly, the most interesting and completed medical account is Dr. Sienkievicz`s from 1883. This very important document is not only report about health situation in the County, but proof of endeavors and initiatives in medical care. In the main part of the account after long and precise narrative descriptions followed by many analyses suggestions and concludes there is a list of 43 causes of death, wrote on Latin and arranged by months. After that, there are facts about mortality arranged by sex and age. Dr. Sienkievicz wrote about food, hygiene condition in the schools, prison and coffee shops and about analyzed situation particularly concerning smallpox, prostitution and livestock[74].

Linkoping in Sweden was middle size provincial town in the 19th century, as well as Pirot in Serbia. Linkoping had 2680 inhabitants in 1800, but on the beginning of 20th century around 15000 citizens[75]. However, no matter of fact that Swedish began to care official statistic about health situation decades before the Serbs in Pirot, medical problems and were almost the same in booth of towns. Infected diseases, particularly respiratory diseases (17% of mortal cases), were most dangers for Swedish and also for Serbian provincial towns. Most dangers disease for children in Linkoping was smallpox what was on regular bases mortal cause in 5%, but vaccination began in 1802[76]. It is interesting that in the same time we can find direction for smallpox healing[77]. Inherited syphilis was significant problem for Linkoping in the 1850es, as well as for Pirot in the 1880es[78]. Pirot citizen suffered of diphtheria and scarlet fever almost on the same way as Linkoping inhabitants during the second part of the 19th century when town lost many people what was common even for metropolis like London[79].

If we take attention on big town communities, like Lion in France we could see that waste waters go to Rona[80], as well as Pirot citizens did the same in their town and river Nisava. In Marseilles in 1886 out of 32,653 recorded houses more than 14,000 didn’t have any opportunity for throw out the waste; they did it through the gutter right to the streets. If we take in consideration big city of Marseilles in high developed France, shortage of cloaks rooms in many houses in small and provincial Pirot is quite natural fact. In Dr. Sienkievicz`s account and in the papers of teacher Vladimir Nikolic we learn that only small number of Turkish, Jewish and wetly Serbian homes had bath rooms. Evan Paris has not been saved of mass infected diseases what was every day fact for Balkan provincial towns like Pirot. Fore example, because of dirty houses in Paris 33.87% citizens in poverty quarters and 19.25% in rest of the city were dead of cholera in 1832. After this epidemic, typhus came in two big waves in 1873 and 1882. Two years later cholera was again the main mortal cause in City of Light[81].

High developed France was not exception concerning wide spread fake medicine practice because long life tradition, inherited customs, various spell makers and uneducated priests were conditio sine qua non of healing procedures, as well as in Serbia during the 19th century: small Balkan country which was somewhere between Oriental province under dominant Turkish influence and society prepared to accept every kind of Western European values[82]. One of the values was modern medical care.

In little bit more than hundred years Pirot have passed road from the town with almost constant fear of various diseases with out organised medical care to the community with County Hospital and academic educated doctors who could have be outstanding in every town in Europe.

[1] About Serbian medicine from Early Medieval Age to the modern period see: R.V.Katic, Srpska medicina od 9. do 19. veka. Beograd 1967.

[2] Dejan Ciric, Lekaruša, Gate of the East, Gate of the West (CD) (Also:

[3] Pirot Lekarusa, sheet 11b.

[4] Ibid, sheet 8а.

[5] Ibid, sheet 9b.

[6] Ibid, sheet 9а.

[7] Ibid, sheet 22b.

[8] Ibid, sheet 23b.

[9] Ibid, sheet 15b.

[10] Ibid, sheet 31b.

[11] Ibid, sheet 3b, 9b.

[12] Ibid, sheet 12b, 15а, 26а, 43а.

[13] Ibid, sheet 4b, 6b, 7а, 17а, 22b, 47b.

[14] Ibid, sheet 47b.

[15] Ibid, sheet 6b, 17а, 24а.

[16] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1801-1883. Грађа I, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1981, pp. 182-83.

[17] B. Lilic, The Chosen Works, Pirot 1998, p. 179.

[18] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1883-1893. Грађа II, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, p. 18.

[19] Ibid, p. 18.

[20] Н. Манолова-Николова, Чумавите времена (1700-1850), Софиа 2004, p 80.

[21] Ibid, p. 75.

[22] Ibid, pp. 33-34.

[23] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1801-1883. Грађа I, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1981, pp. 71-74.

[24] Исто, 77-79.

[25] Н. Манолова-Николова, p. 99; В. Стојанчевић, Југоисточна Србија у XIX веку (1804-1878), Ниш 1996, p. 120.

[26] Н. Манолова-Николова, pp. 80-81, 88.

[27] Ibid, p. 90.

[28] Ibid, p. 9.

[29] Ibid, pp. 180-81.

[30] Ibid, pp. 187-190.

[31] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1883-1893. Грађа II, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, pp. 8-9.

[32] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1894-1918. Грађа III, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, p. 552

[33] Ibid, pp. 326-27, 362.

[34] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1801-1883. Грађа I, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1981, p. 572.

[35] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1883-1893. Грађа II, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, p. 4.

[36] Ibid, pp. 8-10.

[37] A. Minna Stern and H. Markel, The History of Vaccines and Immunization: Familiar Patterns, New Challenges, Health Affairs, 24 (2005) p. 611.

[38] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1801-1883. Грађа I, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1981, p. 537.

[39] Pirot Lekarusa, sheet 13b.

[40] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1894-1918. Грађа III, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, p. 553.

[41] A. M. Stern and H. Markel, p. 614; P. Domingo, The Triumph over the most Terrible of the Ministers of Death, Anales of Internal Medicine, 127 (1997) pp. 635-642; P.Skold, The Key to Success: The Role of Local Government in the Organization of Smallpox Vaccination in Sweden, Medical History 45 (2000), pp. 201-226.

[42] Ibid, pp. 1036-37, 1039-40, 1042.

[43] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1883-1893. Грађа II, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, 10-11; Пирот и срез Нишавски 1894-1918. Грађа III, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, p. 554.

[44] В. М. Николић, p. 21.

[45] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1801-1883. Грађа I, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1981, pp. 384-385, 406-407.

[46] В. Марјановић, Оснвање прве апотеке у Пироту 4. августа 1880, Пиротски зборник 3 (1971) p. 86.

[47] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1801-1883. Грађа I, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1981, pp. 468-469.

[48] I. Loudon, Doctors and Their Transport, 1750-1914, Medical History 45 (2001) pp. 185-206.

[49] М. Пејчић, Др. Јанко Сенкјевић (1848-1904), Пиротски зборник 11-12 (1984) p. 223.

[50] Ibid, pp. 221-227.

[51] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1883-1893. Грађа II, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, p. 18.

[52] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1801-1883. Грађа I, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1981, pp. 699-670.

[53] Ibid, pp. 670-671.



[56] М. Пејчић, p. 226.

[57] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1894-1918. Грађа III, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, pp. 553-554.

[58] В. М. Николић, p. 21.

[59] Б. Лилић, p. 177.

[60] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1801-1883. Грађа I, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1981, pp. 133-134.

[61] М. Стефановић, p. 48-49.

[62] В. Марјановић, p. 89-91.

[63] Ibid, p. 252.

[64] Ibid, pp. 252-254.

[65] В. Станојевић, Ликови и дела истакнутих лекара од оснивања Сроског лекарскод друштва до данас, Српско лекарско друштво. Споменица, Београд 1972, pp. 199-200.

[66] М. Марковић, Развој хирургије у Пироту, Хроника хирургије у Србији, Београд 2002, p. 389.

[67] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1894-1918. Грађа III, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, p. 19; В. М. Николић, Наведено дело, p. 31.

[68] А. Вулетић, Породица у Србији средином 19. века, Београд 2002, pp. 85-86.

[69] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1883-1893. Грађа II, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, p. 3.

[70] Ibid, pp. 15-16.

[71] Ibid, pp. 166, 168.

[72] A. Lokke, Infant Mortality in Nineteenth Century Denmark, Hygeia Internationalis. An Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health, 3 (2002) p. 144.

[73] M. Bengsston, The Interpretation of Cause of Death Among Infants, Hygeia Internationalis. An Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health, 3 (2002) pp. 54-55.

[74] Пирот и срез Нишавски 1883-1893. Грађа II, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, pp. 1-19.

[75] M. Bengsston, The Interpretation of Cause of Death Among Infants, Hygeia Internationalis. An Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health, 3 (2002) p. 62.

[76] Ibid, pp. 64-65.

[77] Pirot Lekarusa, p. 13b.

[78] M. Bengsston, The Interpretation of Cause of Death Among Infants, Hygeia Internationalis. An Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health, 3 (2002) p. 69; Пирот и срез Нишавски 1883-1893. Грађа II, Приредио И. Николић, Пирот 1982, p. 10.

[79] Ibid, p. 71; A. Tanner, Scarlatina and Sewer Smells: Metropolitan Public Health Records (1850-1920) Hygeia Internationalis. An Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health, 1 (1999) 37-47.

[80] Р. Гарен, Приватни простори, Историја приватног живота 4, приредили Ф. Аријес-Ж.. Диби, Београд 2003, pp. 270-71.

[81] Ibid, pp. 289-290.

[82] А. Корбен, Јауци и шапутања, Историја приватног живота 4, приредили Ф. Аријес-Ж.. Диби, Београд 2003, p. 483.

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Датум последње измене: 2009-03-10 23:39:41

Пројекат Растко / Историја / Историја медицине